Coffee is an annual plant that can reach productive age over 20 years. To start the cultivation of coffee, choose the type of coffee plants carefully. Factors that influence the success of coffee cultivation among species of plants, cultivation techniques, post-harvest handling and marketing of the final product.
Arabica Coffee Cultivation
Basically for farming and cultivation of arabica coffee through activities
Expansion, rejuvenation and rehabilitation are the same as in activities
New Planting, Namely:
1. Growing Conditions
- It is isolated from coffee planting other varieties of ± 100 meters.
- Land free of pests and diseases
- Easy supervision
- soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5
- Top Soil: At least 2%.
- The structure of the soil: fertile, friable to the relative depths of> 100 cm.
- High-place: 800 - 2000 m above sea level
- emperature: 15º C - 25º C.
- Rainfall: 1750 to 3000 mm / yr
2. Materials Plant
For the propagation of plants in the field is required Seedlings Ready Ducts with
the following criteria:
- Source of seeds: Must be derived from the parent or garden a company that has been designated.
- Age seeds: 8 -12 months
- Height: 20 -40 cm
- The minimum amount of old leaf: 5-7
- The number of primary branches: 1
- Trunk diameter: 5-6 cm
- Spacing: 1.25 m x 1.25 m
- Population: 6,400 plants, for needlepoint: 25%
a. Planting distance
Plant spacing system for arabica coffee, among others:
- rectangular: 2,5 x 2,5 m
- Fences: 1,5 x 1,5 m
- double Fence: 1.5 x 1.5 x 3 cm
- It must be made 3 months before planting.
- hole size 50 x 50 x 50 cm, 60 x 60 x 60 cm, 75 x 75 x 75 cm or 1 x 1 x 1 m for heavy soil.
- Soil excavation placed on the left and right of the hole.
- The hole left open for 3 months.
- 2 -4 weeks before planting, soil excavation that has been mixed with manure cage cook as much as 15/20 kg / hole, put back into in the hole.
- The land shall not compacted.
- Planting is done during the rainy season
- Neck roots of seedlings planted flush with the soil surface.
- Clean the weeds around the coffee plants.
- Weeding can be done together with tilling the soil
- For mature plants do 2 x year
- Planting shade trees
- Coffee plants are in need of shade to keep plants Coffee should not bear too much so that the power plants fast exhausted.
- protective Trees planted 1-2 years before planting coffee, or utilizing cover crops have.
- type of plants for shade trees
- Setting shade trees
- High-branching tree protectors 2 x tall cultivated coffee tree
- protective tree pruning is done during the rainy season.
- If the coffee plants and shade trees have been quite large, tree protective can be extended to 1: 2 or 1: 4.
- clipping Shapes
- High-clipping from 1.5 to 1.8 m
- primary branches should be cut high top 1 vertebra
- Pruning is done at the end of the rainy season
- Trimmings Production
- Disposal shoots that grow into branches Disposal atas. worms and turning branches that do not produce fruit.
- disposal of branches attacked by pests.
- Pruning is done 3-4 times a year and worked at the beginning rainy season.
- clipping Rejuvenating (rejuvenation)
- Aimed at older plants and production has dropped decline
- At the beginning of the rainy season, the stem is cut slant height 40-50 cm from the root collar. Former chunks smeared with asphalt.
- soil around the plants dug up and fertilized
- Of the few sprouts maintain 1 -2 shoots growth is good and straight up.
- After quite large, connected with the kind of good and high production.
a. Fertilization dose of coffee per tree are:
- Age 1 year: 50 g of urea, 40 grams TSP and 40 grams of KCL.
- Age 2 years: 100 g of urea, 80 grams TSP and 80 grams of KCL.
- Age 3 years: 150 g Urea, TSP 100 grams, and 100 grams of KCL.
- Age 4 years: 200 g Urea, TSP 100 grams, and 100 grams of KCL.
- Age 5-10 years: 300 g Urea, TSP 150 grams, and 240 grams of KCL.
- Age 10 yrs and older: 500 gr Urea, TSP 200 grams, and 320 grams of KCL.
c. How to fertilization by creating a circular trench depth of ± 10 cm tree, with a distance of tree canopy project (± 1 m)
a. Leaf rust disease
- Pest Fruit Powder
- The cause is a kind of a small beetle
- Attacking young and old fruit
- Control with mechanical ie by collecting fruits stricken, culturally and technically with thinning shade whereas plants with insecticides is chemis Dimecron 50 SCW, Tamaron, Argothion, Lebaycide, Sevin 85 S with a dose of 2 cc / liter of water.
- Powder Branch (Xyloborus moliberus)
- Attacking / broaching small branches and twigs 3-7 from the top of the coffee.
- The leaves turn yellow and fall off then the branch will mongering.
- Control of pests like the fruit powder.
- The cause is a type of fungus.
- sign of attack there are patches of yellowish red at the bottom leaf, while on the surface there are patches of yellow leaves. Then leaves autumn, end of young branches dried and dried fruit to black coffee and the quality is not good the next plant will die.
- Control in technical culture by growing arabica coffee resistant such as S 333, S 288 and S 795 and keep the condition Fungicide Dithane M-45 at a dose of 2 g / liter of water.
- Arabica coffee began to bear fruit at the age of 4 years.
- Pick ripe fruit well with red, dark in order to produce quality coffee.
- At the time of harvest (picking) to be careful so that no part trees / branches / twigs) are damaged.
If you are interested in planting coffee then you are confused to find the good seed, you can visit the "Best coffee seed" or here Asian region (free shipping).
Thus a cursory discussion of the Easy Ways Coffee Cultivation of Good and True, and please read the guide also cultivating other crops, including strawberry plant in a pot guide, guide potato cultivation, cultivation of cocoa, papaya cultivation guide, guide the cultivation of pineapple and banana cultivation guide. and may be useful for the readers, especially those interested in developing coffee plants in the region, the point should not be afraid to try and get to know more closely the plant to be cultivated, it is one of the factors for success in the cultivation, because we are the ones who will care for and maintain it. and do not forget to share it with others so that this information could be useful again.