Plant bark, sweet fruit skinned exotic scales blackish brown with white flesh to yellowish milk, is quite popular among the people of Indonesia. Especially pondoh (Salacca edulis), which is one of the favorite fruits that each fruiting season, there is at the dinner table, or popular as souvenirs. Plant bark besides eaten directly as fresh fruit, can be consumed after being canned fruit, or after processed into salad, candied, pickled, or chips. Moreover, the efficacy of bark to cure diarrhea (diarrhea-diarrhea). Cultivars tree bark that has many fans among the other is pondoh with flesh which is sweet and crunchy texture (crunchy).
BRIEF HISTORY BARK
Plant bark is one of the favored fruit crops and have a good prospect for the effort. Her area of origin is not clear, but is thought of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. There is also a reply saying that plants (Salacca edulis) from the island of Java. In the colonial period bark seeds brought by merchants to spread throughout Indonesia, even to the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand.
TYPES OF PLANTS BARK
In this world known to bark wildly, like Salacca dransfieldiana JP Mo-gea; S. magnifera JP Mogea; S. minuta; S. & S. multiflora romosiana. In addition to the wild barking, barking wildly still known more as Salacca rumphili Wallich ex. Blume also called S. wallichiana, C. Martus called rakum / kumbar (popular in Thailand) as a maker of fresh sour on cuisine. This kumbar not prickly, flowers married 2 (dioeciious). Plant bark including the family: Palmae (palm-paleman), monocots, long leaves with a strong main vein as the coconut is called a stick. All parts of the leaves are prickly sharp short trunk, eventually rising to 3 m or more, finally collapsed unable to carry the burden of the crown of leaves is too heavy (not comparable with a small stem). Many varieties of bark that can grow in Indonesia. There were young has been felt sweet, yielding varieties that have been released by the government to be developed are: pondoh, swaru, Nglumut, Enrekang, rock sugar (Bali), and others. Actually kind of barked in Indonesia there are 3 striking differences, namely: Java bark Salacca zalacca (Gaertner) Voss 2-3 grains which have seeds, bark Bali Slacca amboinensis (Becc) Mogea were seeded 1 to 2 grains, and barked Mulberry Salacca sumatrana (Becc) fleshy red. Types of bark that have commercial value eminence.
BENEFIT PLANT BARK
Fruits only eaten fresh or made preserves and pickles. At this time candied bark is made with the skin, unpeeled. The trunk can not be used for building materials or firewood. Ripe fruit presented as a table fruit. Fresh fruit traded usually still in bunches or have been removed (seed). Fruits are picked at month 4 or 5 is usually to be made sweets.
GROWTH CONDITIONS BARK
Bark of plants when grown in the appropriate climate berzona Aa bcd, Babc & Cbc. A higher mean number of wet months (11-12 months / years), B: 8-10 months / year & C: 5-7 months / year.
Plant bark will grow well in areas with an average rainfall of 200-400 mm per year / month. Rainfall monthly average of more than 100 mm is considered in the wet months. Means the bark requires a degree of wetness or high humidity.
Barked plants can not tolerate full sun (100%), but sufficient 50-70%, because it is necessary to plant shade.
The best temperature is between 20-30 ° C. Plant bark require high humidity, but not stand waterlogging.
Barked plants like fertile soil, loose and moist.
The degree of soil acidity (pH) suitable for cultivation bark is 4.5 to 7.5.
Garden bark can not stand waterlogging. For growth requires high humidity.
Bark plants grow at altitude of 100-500 m above sea level.
GUIDELINES FOR RAISING BARK
One factor to consider in seeking barking plant is the use of quality seeds and quality. Barking plant is an annual plant, because it is an error in the use of seeds would be bad in his own efforts, although treated with good technical culture will not give the desired results, so the issued capital will not return because of the losses in the agricultural business. To avoid such problems, there should be a good way of breeding bark. Breeding bark can be derived from seed (generative) or of tillers (vegetative). Nurseries generative is the nursery by using good seed obtained from parent trees that have good qualities, namely: rapid fruiting, fruit throughout the year, the fruit of many and uniform, plant growth is good, resistant to pests and diseases as well as environmental influences less profitable.
Profit generative seed multiplication:
- Can be done easily and cheap
- Obtained the seeds that many
- Resultant plants grow healthier and live longer
- To transport grain and seed storage easier
- Resultant plants have strong roots so that the lodging resistance and drought
- Allowing repair properties held in the form of a cross.
Disadvantages generative propagation:
- The quality of the fruit produced is not identical to the mother plant because of possible cross-pollination.
- rather difficult to know whether the seeds produced by the male or female.
To get a good seed to do the selection of seeds that will be used as seed. The terms of seeds that will be used as seed:
- Seeds derived from parent trees that qualify.
- Fruit seeds must be taken in the quotation at the time of age.
- Have the ability to grow a minimum of 85%.
- Large grain size uniform and not disabled.
- Healthy seeds not attacked by pests and diseases.
- Seed pure and not mixed with other impurities.
Preparation of Seeds
Seeds from Seed:
- Seeds bark is cleaned from the remnants of flesh still attached.
- Soak in water for 24 hours, then washed.
Seedlings of nymphs:
- Choose a good chicks and comes from a good parent
- Prepare pieces of bamboo, then filled with soil media.
Seeding techniques Seed
Seeds from Seed:
- Seeds of bark that have been soaked and washed, put into a plastic bag that has been drilled (wet jute sacks), then put in the shade and moist until germination aged 20-30 days.
- One month later given Urea, TSP and KCl, respectively 5 grams, every 2-3 weeks
- So that the humidity up, did watering every day
- Create a wooden tub with a size of 25 cm height, width and length tailored to the needs
- Filled with lush and fertile soil thickness of 15-20 cm
- On land filled with sand 5-10 cm thick
- Directions South & North seedbed given shade overlooking the East
- Seeds are soaked in a solution of hormones such as Atonik for 1 hour, the solution concentration 0.01-0.02 cc / liter of water
Planting seeds in the nursery tub with a distance of 10 x 10 cm
Directions seeds embedded in an upright position, tilt / fall with buds under
Maintenance Nurseries / Seeding: For breeding of seeds, seeding media is polybag with size 20 x 25 cm were filled with soil mix manure in the ratio 2: 1. After the seeds or sprouts new age of 20-30 days the seedlings were transferred to polybags. Nursery with seedlings system, bamboo seedling is placed just below the bark, then watered every day. After 1 month of the roots have grown and puppies separated from its mother, then planted in polybags. Urea, TSP, KCl was given one month as much as 1 teaspoon.
Seed removal: For seeds from seed, seedling bark after a 4 month old recently moved into agricultural land. For the nursery of saplings, after 6 months of the new seedlings can be moved to the field.
Preparation: Determination of the plantation area to bark must take into account the ease of transportation and water resources.
Dismantling the plant that are not needed and turn off the reeds and eliminate weeds and shrubs from planting areas.
Plowing the soil to remove soil that is too big chunk.
Hole Making Plant: Planting hole is made with a size of 30 x 30 x 30 cm with a spacing of 1 x 4 m; 2 x 2 m or 1.5 x 2.5 m. The size of the holes can also be made of 50 x 50 x 40 cm, with a spacing of 2 x 4 m or 3 x 4 m. Each hole manure which has become as much as 10 kg.
Planting: Seeds sown directly in holes totaling 3- 4 seeds per hole. A month later the seeds start to grow
Other: To avoid full sun, barking plants grown under shade plants such as coconut, durian, lamtoro and so on. If the land is still no shade plants, can be planted as a shade plant as banana plants. Spacing shade trees adjusted according to the size of the area planted with coconut canopy for example a distance of 10 x 10 m, durian 12 x 12 m and lamtoro 12 x 12 m.
When finished planting, plant bark needs to be maintained properly and regularly in order to obtain a good production and productive garden. Maintenance is carried out until the end of the production plant bark.
Spacing & Stitching: To obtain large-sized pieces, then when the bunches have already started meeting needs thinning. Thinning usually performed at month 4 or 5. Stitching performed on young plants or newly planted, but die or their growth is less good or a dwarf, or for example, too many plants females. For the purposes of replanting we need to plant a backup (usually needs to be provided 10%) of the total, the rest with other crops. The beginning of the rainy season is very appropriate to do stitching. Plants reserves transferred by way round, which included most of the land area covered roots. When dismantle the plant, part of the base as well as our soil with plastic wrap so that roots in the inside is protected from damage, done with caution.
Weeding: Weeding is to remove and wash the weeds or other invasive plant that grows in the garden barking. Weeds commonly called this weed if not eradicated would be a contender for fight in barking plant nutrients and water. The first weeding is done when the plants are 2 months old after the seeds are planted, the next weeding is done every 3 months to a year old plant. After the weeding is done every 6 months or 2 times in one year, conducted at the beginning and end of the rainy season.
Crumble: While performing weeding, tilling the soil also conducted subject to the barking plant. This is done to save on labor costs as well as to the efficiency of the treatment. Soil dug to form a mound that serves to strengthen the roots and stems of plants bark in place. not to damage the existing trench.
Pruning: The leaves are old and not useful should be trimmed. Also leaves that are too dense or damaged attacked by pests. Shoots too much to be thinned, especially approaching moments of fruit trees (pruning). With pruning, hedge bark so that the garden is not too dense humid and stuffy due to substandard air circulation improved. Pruning also helps spread the food in order not only to leaf or vegetative parts, but also to flowers, fruit or generative part in a balanced way. Pruning is done every 2 months, but when nearing flowering or fruiting pruning we do more often, namely 1 month 1 times. If the bark clumps are some saplings, seedlings reductions do ahead of fruiting plants. One clump barked enough we keep 1 or 2 tillers. Maximum number of tillers 3-4 fruits at one clump. When more of the puppies will disrupt plant productivity. Bark leaf pruning should arrive at the leaf base. Do not just cut in half or in part the leaves, because the part that is left actually has no use for plants. Pruning during the past harvest must still be done. Pruning tool you should use a sharp machete or chainsaw. Trimming is carried out on time and the right way will help the plants grow well and optimally.
Fertilization: All materials are given to plants with the intention to provide additional nutrients to improve the growth and production of crops is called fertilizer. There fertilizer provided through the root zone of the plant (root fertilizer). Fertilizer applied by spraying via the leaves of the plants (foliar fertilizer). There are 2 kinds of fertilizer types: organic and inorganic fertilizers. Organic fertilizer is manure, green manure, compost, plant ash, blood meal and so on. Inorganic fertilizers are: Ure, TSP, Kcl, ZA, NPK Hidrasil, Gandasil, Super Phosphate, Bay folan, Green Zit, and so on. Organic fertilizers are often given to barking plant is manure. Age of plants:
0-12 months (1 x month): Manure 1000, 5 grams of Urea, TSP 5 grams, 5 grams KCl.
12-24 months (1 x 2 months): 10 grams Urea, TSP 10 grams, 10 grams KCl.
24-36 months (1 x 3 months): Urea 15 grams, 15 grams TSP, KCl 15 grams.
36-dst (1 x 6 months): Urea 20 grams, 20 grams TSP, KCl 20 grams.
Irrigation & Watering: Rainwater is a natural spray for plants, but it is difficult to regulate rainwater in order to comply with the required plant. Rainwater will largely be lost through evaporation, percolation and runoff. A small fraction retained in the root zone, the remaining water is often not meet the needs of the plant. in the cultivation of bark, during growth, the need for water to be fulfilled, for that we need to give the water to the time, manner and amount as appropriate.
Other maintenance: Once planted in the garden we make sustainer of bamboo or wood to keep the plant does not collapse.
PEST & DISEASE BARK
Lice wool / white (Cerataphis sp.): These pests lurking on the sidelines of the fruit.
Bud weevil (Omotemnus sp ..)
Attacking the leaf tips ang young (the youngest), then going way into the stem. It does not cause the death of the plant, but it will grow saplings that much inside the trunk.
Control: turned off or by dripping a solution of insecticide (Diazenon) at a dose of 2 cc per liter at the end of the affected leaves or by spraying. in this case attempted insecticide can enter into a former pit that was attacked. Insert the wire ends that taper into the hole created by the pest beetles.
Wild boar, squirrels, mice and ferrets
to eradicate wild boar, held by a special shooting, or fence in the garden barking with bark-bark meeting males. It would be better if the garden barking fence with barbed wire;
to eradicate rats, used Zink phosphit, klerat and others;
to eradicate civets and squirrels, can be used bait bananas entered Furadan 3 G.
How: banana split, approximately 0.5 grams of Furadan put into it, then bananas are sewn and used as bait.
A disease that often attacks the bark is white fungus countrymen,
Symptoms: rotten fruit. The fruit of this disease so the quality is declining, because of the skin color of bark so unattractive.
Control: reduced soil moisture, which reduces the protective trees.
Black stain :
Cause: The fungus Pestalotia sp.
Symptoms: the existence of dark patches on the leaf bark.
Red rot (pink):
Cause: The fungus Corticium salmonicolor.
Symptoms: the decay of fruits and stems.
Control: diseased and affected leaves should be cut and burned in a certain place.
In some places in Java, barking land built on former rice fields. So that automatically weeds dominate the garden are weeds commonly found in rice fields. Wetland usual because stagnant water drained and cultivated land, the weeds that survived is the narrow-leaved weeds and growing creeper that very few are in the fields. Weeds are trunked upright skinny, long-leaved generally less able to survive in the rice fields. That is why the weeds in paddy land formerly used relatively little. Control manually or hoeing was already adequate. Chemical weeding in gardens bark commonly implemented yet. For land that is not how large, farmers still use the manual method (pulling grass by hand or hoe). When the bark is quite spacious land, as well as the newly opened, there are certainly a lot of weeds difficult to eradicate once and only by hand. For such situations need to use herbicides, because labor costs are relatively low and the results are faster. Chemical reactions in the killing of wild plants is also very fast. Herbicides have a negative effect, because they contain toxins that can harm other living beings including animals and humans.
Good quality fruits obtained when harvesting is done at a good level of maturity. Unripe fruits, if levied will feel sweet. So harvesting is done by picking select, where lies the difficulty. So we have to really know the fruits that are old but not yet ripe.
Characteristics and Harvest: The fruit bark can be harvested after ripe on the tree, usually aged 6 months after the flowers bloom (anthesis). It is characterized by scales that have rarely, fruit skin color dark red or dark yellow, and feathers have been lost. End skin fruit (fruit tapered section) feels soft when pressed. Signs of old fruit, according to other sources are: the color is shiny (smooth), if taken easily separated from the stem bark of fruit and scented.
How to Harvest harvest ways: as fruits ripening in unison, then the quotation chosen. to consider in picking whether the fruits will be stored longer or be eaten immediately. If stored longer picking will be done when the fruits old, so do not be too old trees. Fruits that are old are not durable stored. Harvesting is done by cutting the fruit stalk clusters.
Harvest Period: bark plant in harvest time there are four seasons:
Harvest in November, December and January
The harvest was in May, June & July
Small harvest in the months of February, March and April.
Blank period / breaks in the months of August, September and October. When in these months there are fruits so-called fruit slandren. According to another source a large harvest of fruits is between the months of October to January.
Forecast production: the cultivation of bark, which can be achieved in the result of the growing season was 15 tonnes per hectare.
Like the other fruits, fruits are easily damaged and not durable. Damage is characterized by a foul odor and the fruit flesh becomes flabby and brownish. Once picked fruits still continue the process of life in the form of physiological processes (changes in color, respiration, the process of biochemical and functional overhaul with the spoilage by microorganisms). So that the fruits can not be stored longer in a fresh state, it is necessary to post-harvest handling.
Collection: Warehouse serves as a receiver collecting fruits from farmers or the garden. This is done in the warehouse collection: sorting, grading and packaging.
Sorting & Classification: Sorting / selection aims to pick good fruit, not disabled, and worthy of export. also aims to clean up the fruits of various materials as useless as stalks, twigs and dirt. The materials are cut with a knife, a sickle, sharp pruning shears does not rust so that does not cause damage to the fruit. Grading / classification aims to:
- Gets the fruit of uniform (size and quality)
- Facilitate the preparation in the container / crate / container tool
- Get a higher price
- Stimulates interest to buy
- So the calculation is easier
- For estimating temporary income.
This classification can be based on: a heavy, large, shape, form, color, style, independent of the presence or absence of disease and disability / injury. All of it is put into classes and groups on their own.
- Bark quality of AA (really super, yellow, 1kg = 12 pieces)
- Bark quality AB (not too big, not too small, and healthy)
- Bark quality C (for sweets, 1kg = 25-30 pieces)
- Bark quality BS (1/2 rotten or broken), not sold.
3. Packaging & Transportation
The purpose of packaging is to protect fruits from damage, ease in preparation, both in transportation and in the warehouse and to simplify the calculation. There packaging for fresh fruit and for candied bark. Packaging for fresh fruit:
- The packaging must be perforated tool
- Must be strong, so that the fruits are protected from external pressure
- Can be transported easily
- The packaging size should be adjusted by the amount of fruit.
- Freight must be done quickly and precisely.
- Packaging and transport of auspicious conditions to ensure the preservation of a high quality.
- Expectations for considerable profit by using transport facilities were adequate.
Thus the discussion about the Easy Ways Plant Bark Cultivation of Good and True, may be useful and good luck.