Integrated Agricultural Using Concept Permaculture and Natural Pesticides Towards Healthy Food

Permaculture is a design science disciplines of ecology, ecological engineering science, and environmental science and architectural design to develop sustainable agricultural systems based on natural ecosystem.
Permaculture concept
The core of permaculture systems are:
  • Care about the earth, because without a healthy earth man can not prosper.
  • Care about humans, that all human beings should have access to the resources needed for their lives, one of them is getting access to healthy food.
  • To recover the surplus and agricultural inputs into the system, including restoring agricultural waste for recycling.
One of the core methods permaculture system is that one element can perform multiple functions.
One example, place a block on the outskirts of the city, in summer residents maintain or care for the sheep. The main task is to control the sheep eat the grass by the way. And sheep are also a source of fertilizer through their droppings, he became a pet and controlling the grass until the end of the growing season, and sheep are a source of protein-containing foods are organic.

Etymology
One of the inventors of permaculture is David Holmgren, he described that permaculture system is place or an area that is designed to mimic the patterns and relationships that exist in nature, and also a place that could produce food, fiber and energy for local residents. The term "permaculture" as a systematic method that was first coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. The term "permaculture" refers to a sedentary farming, and developed more widely to be a "permanent culture" inspired by the philosophy of natural farming that became cultural Fukuoka (culture of) them. In 1981, Mollison was awarded the Right Livelihood Award, which is claimed as an alternative "Nobel Prize". Mollison was given the award because "has been developing and promoting the theory and practice of permaculture".

A permaculture teacher in America, Warren Brush, estimates that there are currently 2.5 million permaculture practitioners in 135 countries. According to Brush, claims that permaculture is currently feeding more people than the entire aid program in the world is true.

Permaculture methods developed from experiments in the field of agriculture, architecture and social that has lasted for hundreds of years.

The unique of this science is because it successfully combines all disciplines into one integrated system. Many ideas early in permaculture is now widely practiced, like the process of making organic fertilizer (Please read also how to make organic fertilizer), vertical gardens, the use of the coating material (mulching), rain water harvesting with moist soil (swales), aquaponic, and so on ,

Permaculture can adapt and control the different concepts, such as passive solar heating and duck farms, into one integrated structure. Until, this science also has many branches.

One example is the branch 'permablitz', where a number of volunteers gathered in one place in a suburban area for sharing power and grow food. This concept was first conceived in Melbourne, Australia, in 2006, by a young graduate named Dan Palmer permaculture.

The idea then spread to many countries, such as Indonesia, Canada, Portugal, Turkey and the United States.

While Transition Towns is a movement that originated in Ireland, driven by permaculture teacher named Rob Hopkins. He made the concept of a bottom-up process that prepares people to confront climate change and the decline in petroleum supplies.

Site David Holmgren Permaculture even suggested that perhaps is one of the 'export intellectual' Australia's most significant. Powerhouse Museum in Sydney also mentioned that permaculture is one of Australia's greatest innovation in the century after the formation of the Federation, or the independence of this country.

History
In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith taking what he termed as permanent agriculture in his book Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture that contains the results of research on fruit and nut trees as crops for human food and animal feed. Smith sees the world as a whole relationship and proposes to use a mixed system orchard trees and crops that take shelter among the trees. This book inspired many individuals to make agriculture more sustainable.
Permaculture Concept
Working Principle Permaculture
agroforestry      
Agroforestry is an integrated approach to explore the interaction between trees and shrubs with crops and livestock. Agroforestry combines agricultural and forestry technologies to manipulate land use more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable. In agroforestry systems, trees and shrubs used in farming systems or non-timber forest products cultivated in the forest environment. One form of agroforestry is permaculture forest garden.

Hügelkultur
Hügelkultur is the practice of stockpiling large amounts of wood on the ground to improve the soil's ability to hold water. Wood decomposes to form a porous structure that is capable of absorbing water in the rainy season so that the soil will not dry in the dry season.

Natural building
Natural building involves a number of systems and building materials that emphasize environmental sustainability. Many ways to achieve sustainability through natural building structure that maintains durability and use of materials minimally processed or recycled materials, use of renewable resources, non-toxic, and maintain indoor air quality. The main base of natural building is the need to reduce the environmental impact of building and other support systems without sacrificing comfort, health, and aesthetics. So that is more sustainable use of natural building materials available in large quantities in nature, renewable and recyclable. In addition, the existing system in such a building control system temperature and air flow naturally cultivated.


Rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rainwater for later use before reaching the aquifer. Rainwater has been used as drinking water, sanitation livestock drinking water, irrigation, and other uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and other buildings are able to add contributions to the community water supply. Rainwater that has been used is still isa reprocessed as well as gray water that can be used for watering plants to wash.

Coating mulch
In the practice of agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective layer to cover the ground. Any object that can be used as mulch include rocks, gravel, foliage, planks of wood, wood chips, and so on. In permaculture, mulch made from organic preferred because it has more functions, which absorb rainwater, reducing evaporation, provide nutrients, increasing the organic content soil, provides a habitat for soil organisms, restrain the growth of weeds, regulate temperature changes daily land, protect from freezing (frosting) and reducing erosion.

Rotational grazing
Grazing animals deemed to cause damage to the environment, but it is now known that grazing is actually a model emulated directly from nature so that minimal damage to the environment. Rotational grazing animals are grazing systems where livestock grazed regularly and systematically moving from one location to another while providing an opportunity for the grass to grow back. This method can also be used to control invasive species and made to feed a variety of animals such as ruminants, rabbits, poultry,

Natural Pesticides
Natural pesticide is a pesticide active ingredients derived from plants, such as roots, leaves, stems or fruit. The chemicals contained in the plant have bioactivity against insects, such as repellent or repellent ingredient, eat or antifeedant inhibitor, inhibiting the development of insect or insect growth regulators, and inhibitors of spawning, or oviposition deterrent.

Pesticides are used to control pests that attack plants. Material from plants usually processed into various forms, such as being a flour, extract or resin. The production is done by taking a liquid secondary metabolites from the plant or you can also burnt to ashes taken.

While pesticides are used to control plant diseases usually use microbes positive for farmers, their working principle as opposed or natural enemies of harmful microbes farmers. So the population will determine who wins and who loses, so the application of the use of natural pesticides normally we should use it more often, with a population more hope can win the battle.
Please read also means "Making Natural Pesticides".

From the explanation above we can conclude, it would be a lot of positive value if we can implement what is in the pillowcase in this article, including:
  • Natural ecosystems can be maintained.
  • In terms of capital spending can have minimal farming business, because it needs a little more manure can be fulfilled by animals that we keep.
  • Double income, we can get the results of which we harvest crops and livestock that we sell.
  • Access to healthy food is very easy to implement this pattern.
And maybe the readers could add another conclusion from me, and maybe I am both ends discussion of "integrated farming uses the concept of permaculture and natural pesticides towards healthy food", more or less I apologize, and slightly asked readers to share my post this, so This article can be useful more for those actors in the agricultural sector.

Source:
  • Mollison, Bill (1988). Permaculture: A Designers' Manual. Tagari Publications. p. 2. ISBN 0-908228-01-5.
  • Smith, Joseph Russell; Smith, John (1987). Tree Crops: A permanent agriculture. Island Press. ISBN 9781597268738.

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