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Liming Right Solution In Acid Soils As Rainy Season

Liming is an attempt being made to increase the soil pH by adding lime into the soil. The main purpose of these liming is to increase the pH of acidic pH becomes neutral pH. In the soil acidic pH, nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca, Mg) are not available to the plant due to the low pH of the damaged elements. Only the elements Fe and Al (micro elements) which is available on acid soils. It is expected, with liming will increase the pH to neutral, where the pH is neutral in nutrients that may be available to the plants.
Liming Right Solution In Acid Soils As Rainy Season
Sour Soil Problems
Acid soils is very complex problem. Ranging from nutrient content to affect plant growth. Problems that commonly occur on acid soils, among others:
  • Accumulation of H + ions in the soil thereby inhibiting plant growth.
  • The high content of Al 3+ so toxic to plants.
  • Nutrient Ca and Mg.
  • P nutrient deficiencies as bound by Al3 +.
  • Reduced Mo element so that photosynthesis process is interrupted, and
  • Poisoning micro elements which have a high solubility in acid soils.
Objectives, Method and Benefit Liming
The purpose of Liming in essence is how to make the soil has a pH that is in accordance with the needs of plants and solubility of Al in the soil can be suppressed.
Liming own way in accordance with the recommendation of Liming is:
  • Land cultivated either dug or plowed.
  • Lime sown evenly over the surface of the soil, with a dose of lime in conformity with the needs of plants and Al saturation levels.
  • Stirred soil to a depth of 20 cm.
  • Left for 2 weeks and then planted.
Benefits given lime into the soil is:
  • Lowering the soil pH.
  • Lowers the solubility of Al.
  • Improve the nutrient content of Ca and Mg.
  • Improve the texture, structure and stabilize soil aggregates.
  • Lowering the level of danger of soil erosion due to the aggregate steady.
  • Fixing the biological properties of the soil such as the activity of micro-organisms.
For soils that are acidic so that the pH is increased near neutral, it needs liming. The amount of calcification depends on:
1. The pH of the soil is needed by plants. Every kinds of plants require relatively different pH.
2. Form lime and smoothness. So consider some very important things, namely:
  • Chemical guarantee of chalk concerned.
  • Price per ton given on the ground.
  • Reacts with the ground speed.
  • Fineness limestone.
  • Storage, distribution, use a sack or a drink.
3. The amount of lime that is given should be set based on precise estimates of how the increase in the desired pH, texture, structure and soil organic matter content topsoil. Heavier soil texture will require the amount of chalk that more and more. If a layer of soil structure formed by tillage is not always uniform for each type of soil, ha also affects the amount of lime given. The finer the grain of soil aggregates, the more lime is needed. Similarly, pH, texture and structure of the subsoil (subsoil), due to the low pH or higher than the pH of topsoil into consideration how much lime must be provided.

4. Method of lime. Of lime usually done 1-2 weeks before planting in conjunction with the second processing (aggregate smoothing the ground) so evenly mixed in half if the soil surface. Except on pasture land that is not done tillage given at ground level though. Lime with a mechanical spreader or tractor motor will be more effective and efficient on large farms.

5. Liming should be accompanied soil organic matter or the return of crop residues into the soil. It is very important to avoid soil compaction and leaching, as well as improving the effects of fertilization. Besides the effect of organic matter on soil pH cause ligand exchange reactions between organic acids with the hydroxyl group of iron and aluminum hydroxide liberating OH- ions. In addition, electronic derived from the decomposition of organic materials can neutralize a positive charge in the colloidal system so that the will pH increases (Hue, 1992; Yu, 1989).

As for how whitewashing acid soil itself there are several steps that must be passed with difficulty, namely:
  • Prepare lime according to the dosage that has been set.
  • Clean the area to be in chalk on the grass or other vegetation.
  • Hoe / plow the land as a whole.
  • For a few plots of land. For example, one hectare of land is then divided into 40 plots, which means that each plot will receive rations 1/40 dose of lime that is given.
  • Map-plot can be marked with ropes or other signs essentially whatever it wants whitewashing know, whatever like what I do not care.
  • Sprinkle the lime throughout the field as planned.
Excessive calcification caused some adverse things, among others:
  • Lack of iron, manganese, copper and zinc are needed in plant physiological processes.
  • The availability of phosphate can be reduced back due to the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate complexes.
  • Absorption of phosphorus by plants and plant metabolism disturbed.
  • Collection and use of boron can be inhibited.
  • The pH changes can adversely jumped soil microorganism activity, and the availability of nutrients is not balanced.
Liming Right Solution In Acid Soils As Rainy Season
The way to calculate the need to calibrate the usual lime content of Al-dd. Namely by :
Given the needs of chalk = 1 x Al-dd means 1 me Ca / 100g soil to neutralize 1 me Al / 100 g soil.
1 me Ca / 100 g soil = Weight Atom Ca / Valensi x me Ca / 100 g soil
1 me Ca / 100 g soil = 40/2 x 1 me Ca / 100 g soil
= 20 mg Ca / 100 g soil
= 200 mg Ca / kg soil 1 x 2 x 106
(assuming a 20 cm soil depth, BV = 1 g / cm3)
= 400 kg Ca / ha

To calculate the needs of agricultural lime:
Atomic Weight = Total / Loss Atom Ca x Needs Ca

To calculate the needs of CaCO3 (1 x Al-dd):
= 100/40 x 400 kg Ca / ha = 1 ton CaCO3 / ha.

To CaO (1 x Al-dd):
= 56/40 x 400 kg Ca / ha = 0:56 tonnes CaO / ha.

For Ca (OH) 2 (1 x Al-dd):
= 74/40 x 400 kg Ca / ha = 0.74 ton Ca (OH) 2 / ha.

There are different types of lime which can be used for liming of agricultural land. Lime types include:

1. Lime rollers: Super limestone, calcite class 1 (CaCO3)
Lime rollers occupy the main class in the liming of agricultural land. The original material mainly containing CaCO3 or MgCO3 that can change the acidity of the soil.

2. Lime oxide: calcium oxide, calcite class 2 (Quicklime)
Milled chalk or other material that is rich in CaCO3 is heated to a high temperature, to form CO2 and lime life. lime life is mainly composed of CaO when used Ca high grade material. Sometimes lime live still contains MgO limestone form is usually refined flour, but may also contain some clumps of soft (soft lumps). When mixed with water, forming slaked lime. When touched the air, slow living lime absorbs water and CO2 to form a mixture of slaked lime and CaCO3 called slaked lime air.

3. Cretaceous dolomite CaMg (CO3) 2
Limestone containing MgCO3 roughly the same as the content of CaCO3 is called dolomite. Dolomite texture and hardness varies, but once milled perfectly able to work (react) either by the soil when it is not too much to contain other elements. Dolomite is commonly traded as fertilizer, because the content of Mg in addition Ca. Its function as an enhancer element as well as on gypsum fertilizer. Proper correction of soil acidity on thin starting with the provision of calcite, dolomite and then followed by adding to its land.

4. Lime die: slaked lime, hydrated lime Ca (OH) 2
This material is obtained by spraying water on quicklime (calcium oxide) which is then commonly traded as lime to whitewash. Slaked lime slow take up of CO2 air.

5. Cretaceous clay = Marl, Marl
Marl is a grain or grain loose, often impure, CaCO3 derived from the shells of sea animals or formed from the precipitation of CaCO3 from the waters of a small lake or pond. Generally marl interpreted as CaCO3 were soft and could not rot and is usually mixed with clay and other impurities. The term is also used for almost all of the ingredients that are high in chalk like some calcareous clay. Marl is usually almost entirely of pure CaCO3, but sometimes contain clay, dust or high organic materials. Marl often dug in the wet and difficult circumstances laid on the ground, unless previously allowed to dry. Deployment area of ​​chalk marl not milled, and stockpiling much less extensive but contained many beaches.

Excavation simple marl. Marl is often found in the basement of the weight that must be removed first using heavy equipment such as bulldozers. Then the plot surface is broken by the plow discs or tractor, then dried or directly loaded into the truck. Piracy is sometimes done for clicking aerated surface layer so that dry quickly. Marl usually not milled or screened.

6. Chalk = chalk smooth, Talc, Chalk, Ca (HCO 3) 2
This rock is a material that is soft and good CaCO3 for liming. D England, this material is widely used, but in Indonesia, not yet prevalent. Chalk must be milled before use, but because it is easily broken, it just takes a little effort.

7. Cretaceous coals = slag
The steel industry byproduct used as a liming material in the area close to local hot air. Chalk coal is different from most other types of lime in the case of Chad and Mg content, and also contains silicates for example different with CO3 or milled oxides such as lime or quicklime. Its use is as effective as the size of ground chalk.
Cretaceous coals produced in two forms, namely that the air-cooled, so it must be milled before use and grained particles that almost all important refinement perfected the granulation process (granulation). The second form is usually faster action with the soil. Such as his Al dolomite, limestone and coal containing Mg Mg made available to plants. basic slag which is also a byproduct of iron and metal industry is mainly used to add an element of P in plants, but also useful as a liming material. Cretaceous coals containing CaSi2O5, can also be used as a liming material. The Mg content of his very few and P is also low.

8. The skin of animals and others
Milled shells and shells of other marine products rich in CaCO3. When finely ground, the animal's skin will turn into a material that is effective liming agent.
Reference:
Kuswandi. 2005. Liming of Agricultural Land: Revised Edition. Yogyakarta: Canisius.


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