Groupers Fish (Epinephelus sp) is generally known as "groupers" and is the one commodity that has a good chance of marketed domestically and internationally and on the other the solid resale value is high enough. Export grouper drove rapidly by 350% from 19 tonnes in 1987 to 57 tons in 1988 (Ministry of Agriculture, 1990).
Grouper is one of the most popular reef fish in the Asia-Pacific region and has a fairly high export value. One type of grouper that have economic value as high as tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). Tiger grouper generally grow fast, strong and suitable for intensive cultivation and traditional as well as having distinctiveness in the post-harvest and presentation in consumption (Tarwiyah, 2001).
The newly hatched grouper larvae have food reserves in the form of egg yolk. This feed will be used until day 2 (D2) after hatching and during this period the larvae do not require external. Age 3 days (D3) yolk began to be absorbed, needs to be fed from the outside in the form of Rotifera Brachionus plicatilis at a density of 1-3 fish / ml. Besides, it also added chlorella sp Phytoplankton with densities between 5:10 - 10 cells / ml. These larvae feeding until the age of 16 days (D16) with the addition gradually until it reaches the density of 5-10 individuals / ml plytoplankton 10 - 2:10 cells / ml media. On the ninth day (D9) started to be fed newly hatched Artemia nauplii at a density of 0.25 to 0.75 fish / ml media. Artemia nauplii feeding is done until the larvae was 25 days (D25) with increased densities of up to 2-5 fish / ml media. Besides, on a day to seventeen (D17) larvae begin fed Artemia that has been aged 1 day, then gradually feed given was changed from Artemia aged 1 day to Artemia half the adult and finally an adult until the larvae aged 50 days (Slamet, 1993) ,
Groupers have a habit of eating in the morning before sunrise and before sunset. In nature grouper feeding while swimming among corals, grouper never want to take or consume feed given when they get to the base, although grouper in a state of hunger. Grouper usually dwells at the base and will not ambush feed given if they are already full (Akbar, 2002).
A kind of parasite infestation, which is shaped like Argulus crustacean groups, much attack in the nursery grouper. These parasites such as fleas flat-shaped, measuring 2-3 mm, attached to the surface of the fish's body, especially on the skin and fins. The attack in large amounts will result in death, because this parasite sucking the blood of its prey fish and the resulting hollow body, so that the fish are susceptible to secondary infections that fungi and bacteria. The new treatment of parasites of fish is quite a way immersion. Fish usually heal after 2-3 days later. If the fish has been injured can be done submersion in fresh water, followed by immersion in a solution of 10 ppm acriflavin / h (Mayunar, 1991).
The characteristics of the common presence of a fish disease is loss of appetite. Usually often swimming in the water for swimming bubbles swell. Grouper sometimes have fin rot and ulcers, this happens mainly due to bacterial infection. When a lot of fish that show these symptoms, then antibiotics should be given immediately. Oral administration of ampicillin (5-20 mg / kg body weight of fish) or Oxolinic acid (10-30 mg) was quite effective for this infection. On grouper aquaculture, the biggest problem is the disease by viruses, such as infection by Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) and Iridovirus. Occasional attacks of the disease, there will be a high mortality. Until now, there has been no way of treatment for this disease (Kisto, 1991).
In the tank experiment adult female fish will spawn when approaching male. When the time arrives spawn, male and female fish will swim along the surface of the water. Spawning occurs at night, between 18:00 to 22:00. the number of eggs produced depends on the weight of the female body, the female sample weighing 8 kg of grain can produce 1,500,000 eggs. The fertilized egg is "non-adhesive" which eggs are not attached to one another egg. Egg shape is spherical and transparent with a diameter of about 0.80 to 0.85 mm. The fertilized eggs will hatch into active seed dip (Sigit, 1993).
Groupers have properties favorable for cultivation because of rapid growth and can be mass produced to serve the market demand groupers alive (Anonymous, 2010).
Grouper is a fish species that has significant economic value to be cultivated in Asia (Kohno et al., 1993), because the price is expensive and an export commodity (Giri et al., 2001). Grouper culture in Indonesia is increasing quite rapidly. This increase is supported by the knowledge of cultivation techniques is growing, the limited resources of grouper in nature are dwindling due to over exploitation, as well as the increasing market demand, especially from countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and China (Rukyani, 2001) ,
Pioneers grouper culture was first performed by the Japanese state, namely the type of grouper Epinephelus akaara around 1960 (Ukawa et al., 1966). Then developed into several other countries, such as China, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The types of grouper have been successfully cultivated in Indonesia is the tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), grouper mud (E. tauvina), batik grouper (E. Microdon) and grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) (Setyadi et al., 2001; Imanto et al ., 2001; Marzuqi et al., 2001; ISMI et al, 2001).
Although the production of fish seed grouper in quantity is sufficient market demand, but still encountered several obstacles, among others: the survival of fluctuating (INGOs et al., 2001) and the high rate of abnormalities of fish seed produced (Barahona-Fernandes, 1982).
Factors that have been identified as the cause of abnormalities in fish farming, among other things: genetics, disease, nutrition, vitamins, pollutants, and the maintenance of environmental conditions (Boglione et al., 2001; Koumoundouros et al., 1997).
Environmental conditions of maintenance with the use of oil squid at the surface of the water can prevent the occurrence of mass mortality on the water surface, triggered by nature fototaksis positive larvae to light, so that the larvae tend to move toward the light at the surface of the water and trapped by the surface tension of the water (Stefansson et al ., 1990). With the squid oil layer will cover the surface tension of water (Setiadi et al., 2003; Sugama et al., 2001; Yamaoka et ai., 2000).
Yamaoka et ai. (2000) reported that trapping the larvae on the surface of the water due to the slime on the surface of the larva's body trapped by the surface tension of water, so that the larvae can not release from the bondage to run out of energy and eventually die. Furthermore it is said that the body parts are trapped, especially the dorsal and caudal. Alleged that the larvae are caught on the surface of the water and then managed to escape will affect the process of bone formation, especially on the part of the body is entangled causing abnormality.
The study results showed that the abnormal fish that have a negative impact that slow growth, low viability, are vulnerable to disease, easy to stress, and has a low resale value in the market. (Andrades et at., 1996; Matsuoka, 1984; Papema et ai., 1977; Hilomen-Garcia, 1977).
In the following Complete Guide to Raising Ducks And Fish Grouper Tiger Grouper
Requirements Hatchery Location
Good hatchery site requirements include technical and non-technical factors. Technical factors are all requirements that must be met in tiger grouper hatchery activities directly related to the technical aspects of producing seed (Subyakto and Cahyaningsih, 2005). Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) some important aspects that must be met is the location of the hatchery on the beach to facilitate the acquisition of the source of seawater. The beach is not too flat with conditions that are not muddy sea floor and easily accessible to facilitate transportation. The sea water must be clean, not contaminated with the salinity of 28-35 ppt. Source of sea water can be pumped at least 20 hours per day. Source of fresh water available to a maximum of 5 ppt salinity.
Non-technical factors are complementary and supporting technical factors in site selection seeding. Location requirements that are included in non-technical factors include several conveniences such as transportation, communications, electrical installation, labor, marketing, laboratories, dormitories, places of worship and health services. In addition, other things that can support the business continuity of the support of the local government, including the support of local communities (Subyakto and Cahyaningsih, 2005).
Minjoyo, et al., (1998) stated that the tub seed maintenance is usually rectangular or round with a water depth of 1 - 1.5 m. Commonly used bath is 10-20 tons. The use of large-sized tub that aims to reduce fluctuations in temperature, especially when the larvae was aged 0-10 days. First, tubs cleaned then dried and rinsed with chlorine.
Solid Spreading Seeds
Solid stocking namely the large number of fish were sown per unit area or volume. If the population or stocking density is too dense, the fish are highly vulnerable to disease. Stocking of overcrowding could lead to slower growth and higher mortality during maintenance (Sudradjat, 2008). In addition, the high density will cause higher mortality rates as well. Death occurs due to the high level of competition, so that eventually led to cannibalism properties grouper seed (Subyakto and Cahyaningsih, 2003). Fish stocking density is too high will lead to lower food consumption because it will reduce the flexibility of fish to move toward food, so that the length and weight of fish seed is not obtained with the optimal (Endrawati et al., 2008).
Endrawati et al., (2008) to determine the growth of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) were maintained with different stocking density, the experiments were conducted in aquariums measuring 40 x 40 x 60 cm, with 10 liters of sea water media. Grouper larvae used 4 weeks old with initial length of 2.33 cm and a weight of 0.25 grams. The treatment applied by the density of 5, 10 and 15 fish per tank, maintenance carried out for 4 weeks. The results showed that the average - average weight gain and length is best reached tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) with a density of 5 mice / container weighing 3.67 grams and 0.63 cm long. Weight gain and length of the lowest in the treatment of 15 birds / container amounted to 2.16 grams and 0.5 cm. This suggests the existence of competition and cannibalism. In the study Supriyatna et al (2008), the effect of stocking density on the growth of tiger grouper are maintained in a controlled container. Testing is done with the treatment densities respectively 50, 100, 150 head in a concrete tank size 4 m3, with initial weight of 33-43 g and a total length of 12-14 cm. With a stocking density of 50 birds / tub showed good length and weight of the fish in the tail maintained at densities of 100 and 150 animals / curtains.
Groupers are wild marine fish (carnivores) and cannibalistic nature will arise when a shortage of feed. Therefore, the feed must be sufficient both quantity and quality. Selection of the type and size of the right feed will affect the efficiency of feed utilization. Feed used may be of natural food / feed fresh or artificial feed. Trash fish is fresh feed used for groupers are cultured in floating cages. Trash fish used endeavored that in a fresh state. Fresh fish feed must be chopped up in accordance with the size of the fish's mouth openings. If it has been rotten or damaged should not be used because it can result in death of the fish, the feed given to the system addlibitum ie where feeding it a little - a little until the fish is full (Sudirman and Karim, 2008).
Water Quality Management
On the first day after hatching after cleaning to throw shells and egg hatch. Minjoyo et al, (1998) stated larvae 2-7 days cleaning is not done because they are still in a critical period so desperately need stable environmental conditions. Cleaning is done on larvae 8-20 days every 3 days, larvae 21 days cleaning is done every 2 days. Substitution of water began in larvae 8-15 days as much as 5-10% every 3 days. At larvae 15-25 days as much as 10-25% and the age of 25-35 days as much as 20-30% every day. At the age of 35- 45 days the larvae as much as 40-60% every day.
Size uniformity (Grading)
Minjoyo et al, (1998) stated that the grading is to homogenize the maintenance of fish placed in a container and is not a solution to address the nature of cannibalism cannibal but reducing properties. Cannibal nature of lowering the level of the population and the most appropriate way to reduce it is to provide an optimal feed. Grading on fish larvae made at the time was 35 days in which the larvae have become the seed.
Cultivation Grouper Grouper Ducks and Grouper Tigers
Provision of seeds
Seed should be filled cultivation of selected before enlargement. Seed that is not normal (deformity) are relatively weak and susceptible to disease. In addition, the fish tend to show slower growth.
Fish weighing 5-10 grams stocked as many as 75-100 head / m3 for size 10-50 grams of seed can be stocked as many as 40-50 tails / m3. Feed given in the form of fish or pellets. If you want to do with the cultivation of grouper fish feed pellets, the most important requirement for the seeds with pellet feed during the breeding period is fulfilled.
To boost immunity and reduce stress fish, it is advisable to add vitamin C into pellets. Tiger grouper including predatory fish species. Therefore, the cultivation of fish require fresh fish feed bins or high-protein pellets.
Food eaten grouper swallowed 95% after 36 hours in the stomach so that the feeding is done every day. At times of stress, these fish will regurgitate food that has been eaten.
Selection of the type of feed for enlargement should be based on the willingness of the fish to eat the food provided, quality, nutrition and price or economic value. In general, for grouper given fresh trash fish because they are relatively inexpensive, can also be made in the form of pellet feed as a substitute for trash fish.
The success of enlargement grouper is highly dependent on the adequacy of feed. In the early stages of the enlargement, the feeding is done as often as possible until the fish is completely satisfied, at least three times a day. The next phase feeding time and frequency of administration should be appropriate to both the growth and use of feed to be efficient, since it relates to digestion and energy consumption. We recommend feeding 2 times a day during the morning and afternoon. Fresh fish feed must be chopped up in accordance with the size of the fish's mouth openings.
The usefulness of adding a multivitamin to increase the immune fish that can grow normally, in addition, it can prevent overdoses and scoliosis or body bent due to the development of the spine are not perfect. Another benefit is that it can increase the survival rate of fish, or lower mortality rates, affect the performance of the fish, the body color becomes brighter and aggressive. Can also be given extra vitamin C as much as 2 g / kg of feed given 2 times per week.
Monitoring Growth Fish
To determine the dosage of the feed necessary to measure the weight and length of the fish by means of sampling (random) 10% minimum of once a month. Fish anesthetized before measured. Deaths during maintenance is also calculated to obtain the value of SR (the survival) during maintenance. The growth rate of fish is influenced by the type of feed, the amount given and the quality of feed. Grouper fish growth rate from 1 to 1.3 g / day, while the growth rate of tiger grouper 2.5-3 g / day.
Grouper are maintained with initial weight of 1.3 grams and 4 cm total length will be weighed between 400-500 grams for 12-14 months, while the tiger grouper can be harvested in the seventh with a weight of 525 grams. Weight gain grouper relatively slower than the tiger grouper this is possible because genetically it is slow growing.
Tiger grouper fish, including wild and cannibal properties. Therefore, sorting activities or uniformity of size should be routinely performed. This is done so that every net was filled only fish of the same size, if there are differences in the size of the smaller fish will compete with the bigger fish in obtaining food, it can cause many deaths.
Uniformity of size is done starting from the beginning of the enlargement and subsequently forwarded a minimum of every two weeks, especially when there are variations in size. Size sorting is done by nets and fish raised are taken and placed in a plastic bucket with a capacity of 100 liters, then the fish are selected by size and put back in the container maintenance.
Care and control of the net during the enlargement absolutely necessary. Dirty nets can hinder the exchange of water and oxygen and inhibits the growth and cause disease in pet fish. Replacement nets were dirty with clean carried out at least 3 weeks. The nets were dirty dried until dry and then washed by spraying water. Once clean dried back to dry before being used again if the controlled nets are damaged or broken.
Observations Fish Health and Water Quality
Fish health surveillance needs to be done visually and organs for observing the morphology of parasites and fish. While microscopic observations performed in the laboratory for examination of the body of pathogens (parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses).
How to measure water quality (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, ammonium sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, chlorine, etc.) is done by using a thermometer for temperature, refractometer to measure salinity, pH meter or litmus paper for measuring pH, DO meter to measure dissolved oxygen and water quality test kit to measure water quality more adapted to guide the work of each tool used. Frequency of measurements performed at least twice a week.
Pest and disease Grouper Fish
Tiger grouper cultivated at home is often defective in gill cover, mouth, and neck of unknown cause is not clear. General characteristics of the disease is the loss of fish appetite.
Conditions are very important observation to detect the presence of disease in fish feed. When the bad health conditions change grouper usually often swim in the water because the swim bladder to swell. If there is a type of fish, the observations to determine the cause must be done immediately. seed rate is often attacked by VNN.
Symptoms include discoloration becomes darker, slow swimming and spinning. VNN attacking a major effect on the rate of growth of the seed. To avoid this disease, the eggs used must be free of VNN. parasitic worms that infect the skin easily farmed groupers. To suppress the parasitic effect on fish,
You have to soak in fresh water fish (5 minutes) and to replace the nets every 2-4 weeks. Meanwhile, parasites, such as worms, otters can be cleaned by soaking the fish in the water of high salinity (ppt during 15-60 minutes).
Tiger grouper can be harvested after 5 months sized 600 g / head. Generally, the size obtained after 6-8 months of maintenance. Harvesting systems can be either totally or selectively depending on the needs. The same way as fish harvesting crops in the cage.
Akbar M. 1995. Grouper Fish Hatchery in Central Lampung Cultivation Sea. DG Fisheries.
Sigit Budileksono, 1993. Natural Spawning Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in Controlled Bak. Raising bulletin.
Slamet, B. 1993. Effects of temperature decline Media Against Delay Hatching Density Optimization and Improvement in Transportation Eggs Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) J. Pen. Aquaculture Beach, Special Issue, Vol.9 5: 30-36.
Thus the description of Knowing Complete Guide In Cultivating Grouper Fish For Maximum Results, hopefully what is presented can be useful to readers, and do not forget to share, especially for those who are interested to cultivate grouper fish.