Integrated Agricultural Using Concept Permaculture and Natural Pesticides Towards Healthy Food

Permaculture is a design science disciplines of ecology, ecological engineering science, and environmental science and architectural design to develop sustainable agricultural systems based on natural ecosystem.
Permaculture concept
The core of permaculture systems are:
  • Care about the earth, because without a healthy earth man can not prosper.
  • Care about humans, that all human beings should have access to the resources needed for their lives, one of them is getting access to healthy food.
  • To recover the surplus and agricultural inputs into the system, including restoring agricultural waste for recycling.
One of the core methods permaculture system is that one element can perform multiple functions.
One example, place a block on the outskirts of the city, in summer residents maintain or care for the sheep. The main task is to control the sheep eat the grass by the way. And sheep are also a source of fertilizer through their droppings, he became a pet and controlling the grass until the end of the growing season, and sheep are a source of protein-containing foods are organic.

Etymology
One of the inventors of permaculture is David Holmgren, he described that permaculture system is place or an area that is designed to mimic the patterns and relationships that exist in nature, and also a place that could produce food, fiber and energy for local residents. The term "permaculture" as a systematic method that was first coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. The term "permaculture" refers to a sedentary farming, and developed more widely to be a "permanent culture" inspired by the philosophy of natural farming that became cultural Fukuoka (culture of) them. In 1981, Mollison was awarded the Right Livelihood Award, which is claimed as an alternative "Nobel Prize". Mollison was given the award because "has been developing and promoting the theory and practice of permaculture".

A permaculture teacher in America, Warren Brush, estimates that there are currently 2.5 million permaculture practitioners in 135 countries. According to Brush, claims that permaculture is currently feeding more people than the entire aid program in the world is true.

Permaculture methods developed from experiments in the field of agriculture, architecture and social that has lasted for hundreds of years.

The unique of this science is because it successfully combines all disciplines into one integrated system. Many ideas early in permaculture is now widely practiced, like the process of making organic fertilizer (Please read also how to make organic fertilizer), vertical gardens, the use of the coating material (mulching), rain water harvesting with moist soil (swales), aquaponic, and so on ,

Permaculture can adapt and control the different concepts, such as passive solar heating and duck farms, into one integrated structure. Until, this science also has many branches.

One example is the branch 'permablitz', where a number of volunteers gathered in one place in a suburban area for sharing power and grow food. This concept was first conceived in Melbourne, Australia, in 2006, by a young graduate named Dan Palmer permaculture.

The idea then spread to many countries, such as Indonesia, Canada, Portugal, Turkey and the United States.

While Transition Towns is a movement that originated in Ireland, driven by permaculture teacher named Rob Hopkins. He made the concept of a bottom-up process that prepares people to confront climate change and the decline in petroleum supplies.

Site David Holmgren Permaculture even suggested that perhaps is one of the 'export intellectual' Australia's most significant. Powerhouse Museum in Sydney also mentioned that permaculture is one of Australia's greatest innovation in the century after the formation of the Federation, or the independence of this country.

History
In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith taking what he termed as permanent agriculture in his book Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture that contains the results of research on fruit and nut trees as crops for human food and animal feed. Smith sees the world as a whole relationship and proposes to use a mixed system orchard trees and crops that take shelter among the trees. This book inspired many individuals to make agriculture more sustainable.
Permaculture Concept
Working Principle Permaculture
agroforestry      
Agroforestry is an integrated approach to explore the interaction between trees and shrubs with crops and livestock. Agroforestry combines agricultural and forestry technologies to manipulate land use more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable. In agroforestry systems, trees and shrubs used in farming systems or non-timber forest products cultivated in the forest environment. One form of agroforestry is permaculture forest garden.

Hügelkultur
Hügelkultur is the practice of stockpiling large amounts of wood on the ground to improve the soil's ability to hold water. Wood decomposes to form a porous structure that is capable of absorbing water in the rainy season so that the soil will not dry in the dry season.

Natural building
Natural building involves a number of systems and building materials that emphasize environmental sustainability. Many ways to achieve sustainability through natural building structure that maintains durability and use of materials minimally processed or recycled materials, use of renewable resources, non-toxic, and maintain indoor air quality. The main base of natural building is the need to reduce the environmental impact of building and other support systems without sacrificing comfort, health, and aesthetics. So that is more sustainable use of natural building materials available in large quantities in nature, renewable and recyclable. In addition, the existing system in such a building control system temperature and air flow naturally cultivated.


Rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rainwater for later use before reaching the aquifer. Rainwater has been used as drinking water, sanitation livestock drinking water, irrigation, and other uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and other buildings are able to add contributions to the community water supply. Rainwater that has been used is still isa reprocessed as well as gray water that can be used for watering plants to wash.

Coating mulch
In the practice of agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective layer to cover the ground. Any object that can be used as mulch include rocks, gravel, foliage, planks of wood, wood chips, and so on. In permaculture, mulch made from organic preferred because it has more functions, which absorb rainwater, reducing evaporation, provide nutrients, increasing the organic content soil, provides a habitat for soil organisms, restrain the growth of weeds, regulate temperature changes daily land, protect from freezing (frosting) and reducing erosion.

Rotational grazing
Grazing animals deemed to cause damage to the environment, but it is now known that grazing is actually a model emulated directly from nature so that minimal damage to the environment. Rotational grazing animals are grazing systems where livestock grazed regularly and systematically moving from one location to another while providing an opportunity for the grass to grow back. This method can also be used to control invasive species and made to feed a variety of animals such as ruminants, rabbits, poultry,

Natural Pesticides
Natural pesticide is a pesticide active ingredients derived from plants, such as roots, leaves, stems or fruit. The chemicals contained in the plant have bioactivity against insects, such as repellent or repellent ingredient, eat or antifeedant inhibitor, inhibiting the development of insect or insect growth regulators, and inhibitors of spawning, or oviposition deterrent.

Pesticides are used to control pests that attack plants. Material from plants usually processed into various forms, such as being a flour, extract or resin. The production is done by taking a liquid secondary metabolites from the plant or you can also burnt to ashes taken.

While pesticides are used to control plant diseases usually use microbes positive for farmers, their working principle as opposed or natural enemies of harmful microbes farmers. So the population will determine who wins and who loses, so the application of the use of natural pesticides normally we should use it more often, with a population more hope can win the battle.
Please read also means "Making Natural Pesticides".

From the explanation above we can conclude, it would be a lot of positive value if we can implement what is in the pillowcase in this article, including:
  • Natural ecosystems can be maintained.
  • In terms of capital spending can have minimal farming business, because it needs a little more manure can be fulfilled by animals that we keep.
  • Double income, we can get the results of which we harvest crops and livestock that we sell.
  • Access to healthy food is very easy to implement this pattern.
And maybe the readers could add another conclusion from me, and maybe I am both ends discussion of "integrated farming uses the concept of permaculture and natural pesticides towards healthy food", more or less I apologize, and slightly asked readers to share my post this, so This article can be useful more for those actors in the agricultural sector.

Source:
  • Mollison, Bill (1988). Permaculture: A Designers' Manual. Tagari Publications. p. 2. ISBN 0-908228-01-5.
  • Smith, Joseph Russell; Smith, John (1987). Tree Crops: A permanent agriculture. Island Press. ISBN 9781597268738.

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Biological Pest Control With Akatoshiro / Red Bacteria and White Bacteria

Is a type of bacteria that has the ability as an insecticide and Nematisida Biology. His ability as a biological pest controller s makes a lot of additional value so as to present is much in use in the world of farming, especially organic farming. For more details about akatoshiro in biological pest control I have to say the following about the profile:
Red and White Bacteria (Akatoshiro)
White bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis was able to make toxins that can kill many kinds of caterpillars

Nature: Toxic stomach

Ways of working :
White bacteria produce a poison called endotoxin, these toxins will be activated by reaction with a basic compound in the stomach of insects. Once entered into the digestion of insects, the endotoxin will be active, and poison the caterpillars. Caterpillar stops eating and over time will die with black colored body.

RED bacteria, Serratia marcescens are capable of producing enzymes that can disrupt pest, effective against caterpillars, mites and nematodes.

Ways of working :

Nature: Toxic contact
Red bacterium produces the enzyme chitinase and Poisons cytotoxins, which can degrade chitin-containing insect skin. Once the bacteria enter the cell red pest, the bacteria will multiply and produce cytotoxins pests that damage cells. Pest infected has a characteristic reddish body.
Terms applications: make sure the red and white bacterial spray coat the entire surface of the plant. For applications in the ground, pour solution into the soil bacteria food source along.

Other Articles : how to make your own natural fungicide and natural Pesticides.

Similarly, a brief review of akatoshiro in biological pest control, there are many benefits contained from two types is biological pest control, especially for those who are fond of organic farming, might be a guide to him in controlling pests biologically and most importantly does not harm the environment ,
Hopefully what is conveyed can be useful, and do not forget to share it, and gives G + that this article could be on google for those seeking guidance on biological pest control in creating a healthy farm.

Source : BPPI

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BENEFITS FOR SOIL ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND PLANT

Benefits of Organic Fertilizer

Very rare and probably very few farmers are aware that plants require organic matter for survival. Not a few farmers who think that when using chemical fertilizers which many will get results very much anyway.
ORGANIC FERTILIZER
At this time a lot of the actors (farmers) who use the chemicals for fertilizing, and has a tendency to be more giving chemical fertilizers, because of the high expected results but from time to time instead of increasing actually decreases.

Based on data released by the Ministry of Agriculture, shows the data that was terrible for our agricultural land, lots of land country of Indonesia has organic matter content of less than 1%. While the various experiences and research experts expressed high levels of organic matter in the soil will greatly help maximize the results obtained entrepreneurs (farmers).

A little history about the need Fertilizer Indonesia

Before the independence of Indonesia, farmers are very happy to use organic fertilizer in doing agricultural cultivation compared with Inorganic fertilizers (Chemistry).

But the fact is reversed when in the 1960s farmers began to use a lot of chemicals in conducting agricultural cultivation, the more worrying the role of organic fertilizers be considered no role in agriculture so that many farmers who ignore it.

Chemical fertilizer production was from time to time is growing very rapidly, so that when calculated in price, the inorganic fertilizer (chemical) becomes very cheap compared with organic fertilizer.

And supported by at temukannya many improved varieties of various studies are more suitable and better when using inorganic fertilizer (chemical). Resulting in a lot of fact found that degraded agricultural land, resulting in declining levels of organic matter from agricultural land.

Solutions to Overcome Setbacks Organic Materials on Agricultural Land

Fact discovery by many experts say that agricultural land actually require organic fertilizer as a source of fertilizer and nutrients, instead of artificial fertilizers or chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are also very useful as a soil ameliorant or improve the quality of the land as farmland.

The use of green manure

Green manure is one of the organic fertilizer obtained and acquired agricultural land at very low cost and easy.

Source of green manure can be retrieved and obtained from plants or plants that are not useful (that is usually burned by farmers). It also can be obtained from the remains of plants s9sa which is the remainder of the harvest.

The simplest way of processing of green manure is to immerse the raw materials or to the conduct of composted for faster results or before if the land in organic matter spread on land then sprayed with the bacterial decomposition.

Utilization of rice straw as organic materials

Benefits of Organic Fertilizer (green manure)

Benefits that will be felt by farmers is increasing the productivity of agricultural land. Due to the increased levels of organic matter and nutrients in the soil, then by itself will improve the properties, chemistry and biology had land or agricultural land.
Other perceived benefits are more easily perform the processing of land because the land is getting better
Prices organic fertilizer is cheap and very easy to obtain from nature
Organic fertilizer contains micro elements are more complete than with chemical fertilizers
Organic fertilizer will give life to the soil micro-organisms
Another advantage of organic fertilizer that has the ability to mobilize or bridging nutrients in the soil so that it will form the ion particles that are easily absorbed by plants
Has the ability to release nutrient soil very slowly and continuously, so that will help prevent excess supply of nutrients that make the plant poisoning
Able to keep moisture out of the soil, thus reducing the pressure or stress on the plant soil structure
Able to help prevent erosion of topsoil
Able to maintain and care for soil fertility
Benefit to human health, because a lot of the content of nutrients and a more complete and more

so little discussion about the benefits of organic fertilizers, may be useful, and we can be more caring and keeping our soil conditions, in order to remain healthy and can improve the productivity of his produce..

and more details, please download also a video tutorial about:

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Essential Nutrients List For Plants

     Plants, and other living organisms need sufficient and balanced nutrition to grow and develop properly. The following article is a summary of some of the sources to supplement our knowledge of the essential nutrients list for growth and development of our plant.
Macro and Micro Nutrients needed by plants
Basically, when we want to do cultivation, crop any, knowledge of the essential nutrients list for the plants indispensable on what types of nutrients what we need to give to the plants we were suppose that the leaves are not green and it applies to plant whatever we cultivated.

This knowledge is required at least at the time of application of fertilizer so that proper and balanced, because both excessive nutrients or nutrient deficiency can lead to plant growth is not optimal. This knowledge is necessary when we observe our process plant growth after transplanting. When plant growth is not in line with what we expect, we can do an evaluation and appropriate action before it is too late.

Broadly speaking, the plant or plant requires two types of essential nutrients to support optimal growth and development. A list of the essential nutrients that we often call was Macro Nutrients and Micro Nutrients.

Here are two types of the following nutrients usual symptoms arise, either when the deficiency or excess of these elements;

Macro Nutrient
Nutrients Macro nutrients are needed plants in relatively large amounts. The list is as follows:

1. Nitrogen (N)
Nitrogen element with the symbol of N, was instrumental in the formation of plant cells, tissues, and organs of plants. Nitrogen has a primary function as a synthetic material of chlorophyll, protein, and amino acids. Therefore, the element Nitrogen is needed in large enough quantities, especially when entering a phase of vegetative growth. Together with the element phosphorus (P), Nitrogen is used to regulate plant growth overall.

There are two forms of nitrogen, namely ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3). Based on a number of research experts, prove Ammonium should be no more than 25% of the total nitrogen concentration. If excessive, the plants became a big figure but susceptible to disease. Nitrogen derived from ammonium will slow growth due to binding of carbohydrates to supply a bit. Thus the food reserve as capital for flowering will also be minimal. Consequently incapable of flowering plants. Had dominant Nitrate Nitrogen form, then the cells will be compact and robust plant that is more resistant to disease. To determine the N content and the form of nitrogen from fertilizers can be seen from the packaging.

Nitrogen deficiency
The characteristics of the plants Nitrogen deficiency can be recognized from the bottom leaf. Yellowing leaves on the section due to lack of chlorophyll. In the further process, the leaves will dry up and fall off. The bones below the surface of young leaves will look pale. Plant growth slows, stunted and weak. As a result, the production of flowers and seeds will be low.

Excess Nitrogen
Excess amounts of Nitrogen also need to watch out. The characteristics of the plant when its excess N elements are leaf color is too green, leafy plant with leaves. Disposal process becomes long. Adenium will be sekulen because it contains a lot of water. It causes the plant susceptible to attack by fungi and diseases, as well as easy to collapse. Flower production will decrease.

2. Phosphorus or Phosphorus (P)
The element phosphorus (P) is a constituent component of several enzymes, proteins, ATP, RNA, and DNA. ATP is critical to energy transfer processes, while RNA and DNA determines the genetic properties of the plant. P element also plays a role in the growth of the seeds, roots, flowers, and fruit. Effect on root is the improved root structure so that absorption of the nutrients the plant becomes better.

Together with the element Potassium, Phosphorus is used to stimulate the flowering process. It was fair because the crop needs to phosphorus increased height when the plant will bloom.

Phosphorous deficiency (P)
The characteristics starting from old leaves become purple and tend to gray. Edges of leaves become brown, bone young leaves are dark green. Scorched, the growth of small leaves, stunted, and eventually fall out. A phase of slow growth and dwarf plants.

Excess Phosphorous (P)
Excess P causes the absorption of other elements, especially in trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) is disturbed. However, no visible physical symptoms in plants.

3. Potassium (K)
Element Potassium acts as a regulator of plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, accumulation, translocation, transport of carbohydrates, opening closing of stomata, or regulate the distribution of water in the tissues and cells. Disadvantages of this element causes the leaves as burned and eventually fell.

Potassium element is closely related to calcium and magnesium. There is the nature of the antagonism between potassium and calcium. And also between potassium and magnesium. The nature of this antagonism led to the defeat of one of the elements to be absorbed plant if the composition is not balanced. The element potassium is absorbed faster by the plant compared to calcium and magnesium. If the element potassium excess symptoms are similar to magnesium deficiency. Therefore, the nature of the antagonism between potassium and magnesium is greater than the nature of the antagonism between potassium and calcium. Nevertheless, in some cases, excess potassium and calcium deficiency symptoms similar plants.

Potassium deficiency
K deficiency can be seen from the bottom dry leaves or spotting charred. Disadvantages of this element causes the leaves as fire and eventually falls. Easy to fall off and fall flowers. Leaf edge 'scorched', leaf roll down, and vulnerable to disease.

Excess Potassium
Excess K causing impaired absorption of Ca and Mg. Stunted plant growth. so the plants have deficiencies.

4. Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium is an activator that plays a role in energy transport several enzymes in plants. This element is very dominant presence in the leaves, especially for the availability of chlorophyll. So adequacy of magnesium is needed to expedite the process of photosynthesis. That element is also a core component of the formation of chlorophyll and enzymes in various process of protein synthesis.

Magnesium deficiency causes a number of elements not transported because little energy is available. Carried only weighs elements 'light' as nitrogen. As a result, the cells formed large but thin. Tissues become weak and long distances between segments. These characteristics exactly as etiolation-deficiency symptoms light on the plants.

Magnesium deficiency
Yellow spots appear on the surface of old leaves. This occurs because Mg transported to the young leaves. Old leaves eventually become weak and susceptible to disease, especially powdery mildew (powdery mildew).

Excess Magnesium
Excess Mg does not cause extreme symptoms.

5. Calcium (Ca)
This element is the greatest role of cell growth. He is the component that amplifies, and set the penetrating power, as well as taking care of the cell wall. His role is very important in the growing point of the root. Even if there defiensi Ca, formation and impaired root growth and nutrient absorption resulting in stunted. Ca plays a role in the process of cell division and elongation, and regulate the distribution of photosynthesis.

Calcium deficiency
Symptoms of calcium deficiency is the growing point is weak, deformed leaves, curl, small, and eventually fall out. Calcium causes high but not stocky plant. Because a direct effect on the growing point of the shortcomings of this element causes the flower production is hampered. Flowers fall also effect calcium deficiency.

Excess Calcium
Excess calcium did not affect much, it only affects the pH of the soil.

6. Sulfur or Sulfur (S)
Excess Sulfur
In general, plants need in the formation of sulfur amino acids cystine, cysteine ​​and methionine. Besides, it's also a part of biotin, thiamine, co-enzyme A and glutationin. An estimated 90% S in plants is found in the form of amino acids, which is one of its main functions is the building blocks of protein that is in the formation of disulfide bonds between peptide chains. Sulfur (S) is a part (constituent) from the metabolism of complex compounds. Sulfur also functions as an activator, and enzyme cofactors or regulatory role in the physiology of plants

Sulfur deficiency
The amount required by the plant S is equal to the amount of phosphorus (P). S deficiency inhibits protein synthesis, and it is this which can cause nitrogen deficiency chlorosis of plants such as. S deficiency further suppress the growth of shoots from the root growth. Symptoms of deficiency S is more apparent on young leaves with the colors of leaves that turn yellow as the mobility is very low in plants (Haneklaus and decrease in chlorophyll content drastically on the leaves is a typical symptom in plants that experienced deficient S. Deficient S causes the inhibition of protein synthesis were correlated with the accumulation N and dissolved organic nitrates.

Nutrient Micro
Micro elements are elements that plants need in small amounts. Although only absorbed in small amounts, but it is very important to the success of the processes in the plant. Without micro elements, Adenium flowers do not appear prima. Interest will be limp, etc. The micro elements are: boron, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum.

1. Boron (B)
Boron is closely linked with the process of formation, division and differentiation and division of cells. This is related to its role in synthetic RNA, the basic material forming cells. Boron is transported from the roots to penetrate the plant through xylem vessels. Boron in the soil available in limited quantities and easily leached. Boron deficiency is most often found in adenium. Characteristics like leaves variegeta.

Boron deficiency
The leaves are darker than normal leaves, thick and wrinkled.

Excess Boron
Ends of the leaves yellow and necrotic.

2. Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential function activator and bring some enzymes. He was also instrumental help smooth the process of photosynthesis. Forming chlorophyll, and plays a role in reproductive function is.

Disadvantages Copper (Cu)
Bluish-green leaves, leaf buds furl and grow small, stunted growth rate.

Excess Copper (Cu)
Plants grow stunted, limited branching, root formation is inhibited, root thickened and dark.

3. Zinc or Zinc (Zn)
Almost similar to Mn and Mg, sting role in enzyme activator, chlorophyll formation and helps the process of photosynthesis. Deficiency usually occurs in the media who have long been used.

Disadvantages Zinc (Zn)
Slow growth, the distance between the short book, leaves dwarf, wrinkled, or roll to one side and then followed with a loss. The fruit will turn yellow, open, and finally fall. Fruit will be weak so that the fruit should bend straight.

Excess Zinc (Zn)
Excess zinc showed no real impact.

4. Iron or Ferro (Fe)
Iron plays a role in the formation of the protein, as a catalyst for the formation of chlorophyll. Iron acts as an electron carrier in the process of photosynthesis and respiration, as well as activator of some enzymes. This element is not easy to move when there is a shortage so it is difficult to repair. Fe is most often contradictory or antagonistic with other micro elements. To reduce the effect, it is often wrapped with Chelate Fe (chelate) as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid). EDTA is an organic component that is stabilizing the metal ion. The presence of Fe EDTA then antagonist properties at high pH is reduced considerably. In the market encountered with Fe-EDTA brand.

Iron deficiency
Iron deficiency is indicated by symptoms of chlorosis and leaf yellowing or nekrosa. Young leaves appear white due to lack of chlorophyll. Additionally occurs because of damage to the roots. If adenium removed from the pot will be visible pieces of dead roots.

Excess Iron
Provision of fertilizer with high Fe content causes necrosis characterized by the appearance of black spots on the leaves.

5. Molybdenum (Mo)
Mo serves as an electron carrier to convert nitrates into enzymes. This element also plays a role in nitrogen fixation.

Disadvantages Molybdenum
Indicated by the appearance of chlorosis in older leaves, then spread to the young leaves

Excess Molybdenum
Excess do not show obvious symptoms at adenium.

6. Manganese (Mn)
Excess Manganese
Manganese is a micro elements that plants need in an amount not too much. Manganese is important in the synthesis of chlorophyll in addition it acts as a coenzyme, as an activator of several enzymes of respiration, in the reaction of nitrogen metabolism and photosynthesis. Manganese is also required to activate nitrate reductase that are experiencing a shortage of manganese plants require a source of N in the form of NH4 +. The role of manganese in photosynthesis related to the release of electrons from the water in the solution into hydrogen and oxygen.
Nutrient function Manganese (Mn) for the plant are:
a. Needed by plants for the formation of protein and vitamins, especially vitamin C
b. Instrumental in maintaining the condition of the green leaves on the old leaf
c. Feroksidase acts as an enzyme activator and as various enzymes
d. Serving as an important component for the smooth process of assimilation
Mn is needed in culture cotyledons of lettuce to spur growth in the number of shoots produced. Mn in high levels can substitute Mo in the culture of tomato roots. Mn can replace Mg in a certain enzyme systems as evidenced by Hewith in 1948.

Manganese deficiency
Nutrient deficiency, or in other words a shortage of nutrients, can cause abnormal plant growth which could be caused by a deficiency of one or more nutrients, the disorder can be a specific visual symptoms.
Mn is a constituent of ribosomes and also enable the polymerase, protein synthesis, carbohydrate. Act as an activator for a major enzyme in the Krebs cycle, are needed to function in a normal photosynthetic chloroplasts, no indication is needed in the synthesis of chlorophyll. Deficiency elements Mn, among others: the broad-leaved plant, interveinal chlorosis on young leaves like kekahatan Fe but more spread to the older leaves, the cereal patches of color grayish to brownish in color and stripes in the middle and the base The young leaves, split seed on lupine plants.
Identification Symptoms of manganese deficiency is relative, often a nutrient deficiency in conjunction with an excess of other nutrients. On the field is not easy to distinguish the symptoms of deficiency. Not infrequently pests and diseases resembling a micro-nutrient deficiency symptoms. Symptoms can occur due to various reasons.
Symptoms of manganese deficiency showed necrotic spots on the leaves. Mobility of manganese is complex and depends on the species and age of the plant so that early symptoms can be seen on young leaves or older leaves .. manganese deficiency is characterized by yellowing of the leaves between the bones leaves. While the bone itself leaves remain green.

7. Chlorine (Cl)
Excess Chlorine
Involved in osmosis (movement of water or solutes in cells), the ion balance necessary for plants to take up mineral elements and in photosynthesis.

Chlorine deficiency
Can cause symptoms that are less normal leaf growth in plants, especially vegetables, leaves appear less healthy and copper-colored. Sometimes the growth of tomato plants, wheat and cotton showed the symptoms as above.

8. Sodium (Na)
Excess Sodium
Involved in osmotic (water movement) and ionic balance in plants. One of the negative effects of excess Na is that it can reduce the availability K.

Sodium deficiency
The leaves can be green tenaman old and thin. Plants quickly wither.

9. Cobalt (Co)
Excess Cobalt
Cobalt is much higher for nitrogen fixation than ammonium nutrition. Levels of nitrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of deficiency.

Cobalt deficiency
Reduce the formation of hemoglobin and nitrogen fixation

10. Silicone (Si)
Excess Silicone
Si can improve results through increased efficiency of photosynthesis and induces resistance to pests and diseases found as a component of the cell wall. Plants with supply of soluble silicon produce stronger plants, increase the heat and drought of plants, tolerance silicon can be stored by plants at the site of infection by fungus to combat the penetration of the cell wall by fungal attack.

Silicon shortage

Can result in plants susceptible to disease.

11. Nickel (Ni)
Excess Nickel
Required for the enzyme urease to decompose urea in liberating nitrogen into a form that can be used for crops. Nickel is required for iron absorption. Nickel seeds need to germinate. Plants grown without additional nickel will gradually reach the level of shortages as they mature and begin reproductive growth

Nickel deficiency
Nickel deficiency of elements in plants will lead to a failure to produce viable seed.

Other articles : how to make your own organic fertilizer and liquid organic fertilizer / how to make your own natural fungicide and natural Pesticides.


Similarly, writing about the Essential Nutrients List For Plants. may be useful to promote agriculture Loving ...

GREETINGS OF SUSTAINABLE

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Benefits of Coconut Fiber or Cocopeat For Soil And Plant

Coconut coir or identified with the term plantation waste cocopeat is abundant in oil-producing areas, crops still aren or Arecaceae family, all parts have great benefits for humans. If the coconut water has important advantages as the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer, as well as fiber wrapped around coconuts can be processed into solid organic fertilizer.
COCONUT FIBER
In the world of organic farming-based, utilizing coconut husk as solid manure has an important role for the fertility of agricultural land. the solid organic manure, cocopeat / coconut coir function as bio-pores to the soil, with the cavity - the cavity in the ground can improve air circulation carries oxygen needed by plants.

In addition to improving soil aeration on agriculture, other benefits of coconut fiber has the ability to store water is 6 times more than its volume. In other words, if the weight of coco 1 kg of water, the power savings can reach 60 kg of water, of course, use coconut fiber as the base material of organic fertilizer is the right solution for the area is minimal rainfall.

Nutrient content of Coconut Fiber
Actually the coconut husk which though not yet in cocopeat, cocopeat itself is a waste coconut coir processing in the capture of fiber or fiber. Cocopeat is fine grains or powders of coconut fiber, whatever the term used to call it is not a problem. which is the subject of the benefits of coconut husk is very large for agriculture. The nutrient content owned coconut husk either macro or micro-turns are needed by plants.

The content of macro and micro nutrients contained in coconut fiber, among others (K) Potassium (P) phosphorus (Ca) Calcium, (Mg) Magnesium, (Na) Sodium and some other minerals. But of the many nutrient content owned cocopeat, it turns out the number of the most abundant is the element of K (potassium). As we all know that the content of (P) Phosphorus and (K) Potassium is needed by plants during the process of the formation of the fruit as well as an increased sense for any kind of fruit.

As the benefits of Coconut Fiber/cocopeat (Organic Fertilizer) for soil and plant
Coconut fiber
can be processed into liquid organic fertilizer also read:
but to cultivate coconut husks into solid organic fertilizers need further processing by crushing in advance, before the process of making solid organic fertilizer. However, to facilitate you in making solid organic fertilizer without destroying the husk, Cocopeat use option is the right choice. Cocpeat already widely sold most people who have been familiar with the world of organic farming.

BENEFITS OF COCONUT FIBER OR COCOPEAT
The use of coconut fiber as a mixture of solid organic fertilizer production, proved to have a positive impact on agriculture. Rice plants that use solid organic fertilizer with the addition of cocopeat can improve the quality, weight (pithy) and feel better, when compared with similar solid organic fertilizer use without mixing cocopeat.

interested to use it on your plants growing media.? or difficult to get a coconut fiber.? You can visit the "variety packs coconut fiber" or in here Asian region (free shipping) and you can choose according to your needs.

Similarly, a review of the benefits Cocopeat / Coconut Fiber For Agriculture, if you would start trying coconut fiber to your agriculture ?. If something is missing please share your ideas or your opinions via the comments field below, Greetings successful organic farming..

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How To Make Liquid Organic Fertilizer With Materials Coconut Fiber

In the environment around us a lot of waste materials that seem useless, but its function there if we are to seek to know and want to initiate a change.
Cocopeat Liquid Organic Fertilizer
One is like the title of this discussion, it turns out that the material is a waste of a coconut in the form of coconut fiber. Generally, only the coconut husk is used as fuel to cook in the kitchen. Yet besides coconut fiber also can be used as organic fertilizer. Coconut fiber contained in the materials needed by plants such as potassium and chloride crate discussion about the "BENEFITS OF COCONUT FIBER OR COCOPEAT". The function of the potassium and chloride for the plant is to strengthen plant roots. The construction is also quite easy so you can definitely make yourself at home. How, you interested in making? Here's how it's done:

Tools and materials
  • Coconut coir 25 kg.
  • Drum former 1 piece.
  • Water 40 liters
Ways of making
  • Clean the coconut husk of the outer skin.
  • Coco fiber that has been cleaned put into drums.
  • Fill the container with water until half filled.
  • Cover tightly and place it in the shade drum.
  • Avoid sunlight and rain water and let stand for 15 days.
  • Every morning / afternoon drum lid is opened so that the fermentation gas can come out and stirred.
  • Checks on day 16, when the soaking water color changed to yellow-black color, the liquid manure from coconut husk ready to be used to fertilize crops.
  • The use of bacterial decomposition can accelerate results manufacture of liquid fertilizer.
Description: The highest nutrient content in manure is potassium.

The use of liquid fertilizer with a ratio of 1: 15 (1 liter of liquid fertilizer: 15 liters of water) and adjusted to the type of plant, the larger the plant the more their liquid fertilizer use.

Okay, here's a little information that I can give about the experience How to Make Liquid Organic Fertilizer With Material Coconut Fiber, and you can also try to read my guide others about how to make organic fertilizer that is good and true, or how to make natural pesticide that might be useful to support you in your gardening activities at home. okay maybe that was it from me, may be helpful and useful for those of you who are already taking the time to visit and read my writing. and do not forget to share it with others, so that many people who know how to make your own liquid organic fertilizer.

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About Biochar and Benefits for Soil Fertility and Organic Farming

            Soil fertility is the ability of soil to provide nutrients in sufficient quantities and balanced for growth and yield, soil fertility is one of the things that need to be noticed in an agricultural business. A healthy and fertile land will provide enough nutrients to crops planted on it. Soil fertility is very closely linked to the availability of nutrients are available and can be absorbed by plants. Basically have a lot of available nutrients in the soil. It's just that there are some problems associated with the absorption of nutrients and the nature of it. There are several nutrients that are very abundant in nature only plants can not utilize the nutrients directly. For example, the N element, the element is abundant availability in nature. Only plants can not directly memamanfaatkan nutrients (except legume crops). There are some soil organisms that help plants transform and remodel n elements in nature becomes NH4 + that can be absorbed by plants. In addition to N elements, there are also other elements that also require the bacteria to merombaknya into a form element that can be absorbed by plants.
About Biochar and Benefits
           Biochar is the solid material obtained from carbonization of biomass. Biochar constitute charcoal porous substance (porous), often called charcoal or agri-char. Because it comes from living creatures we call charcoal-bio. In the soil, biochar provide good habitat for soil microbes such as bacteria that help in a reshuffle of nutrients so that nutrients can be absorbed by tenaman, but not consumed like other organic materials. In the long term biochar does not disturb the balance of the carbon-nitrogen, not even able to hold and makes the water and nutrients more available to plants.

           Biochar can be added to the ground with a view to improve the functioning of the soil and to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise be naturally lower greenhouse gases. Biochar also has the considerable value of carbon sequestration. Biochar is the material desired land in many locations because of its ability to attract and retain water. This is possible because of the porous structure and high surface area. As a result, nutrients, phosphorus and agricultural chemicals maintained for the benefit of the plant. Biochardapat become an important tool for improving food security and diversity of agricultural land in areas with depleted soil, organic resources are scarce and inadequate water supply and chemical fertilizers. Biochar also improve the quality and quantity of water to increase the retention of soil nutrients and agricultural chemicals for plants and plant utilization. More nutrients stay in the soil instead of leaching into ground water and cause pollution.

Other articles : how to make your own organic fertilizer and liquid organic fertilizer / how to make your own natural fungicide and natural Pesticides.

          Application of biochar into the soil is a new and unique approach to make a container (sink) for the long-term atmospheric CO2 in terrestrial ecosystems. In the manufacturing process, approximately 50% of the carbon contained in the basic materials will be contained in biochar, biological decomposition is usually less than 20% after 5-10 years, while the burning is only 3% of carbon is left. In addition to reducing emissions and increase the binding of greenhouse gases, soil fertility and crop production can also be improved. Two main things biochar potential for agriculture is a high affinity for nutrients and persistence. Biochar is more persistent in the soil, so that all the benefits associated with nutrient retention and soil fertility can run longer than other organic materials commonly given. Long persistence makes biochar main options for reducing the impact of climate change. Although it can be a source of alternative energy, the benefits of biochar is much greater if buried in the ground in achieving environmentally friendly agriculture.


           The addition of biochar to the soil increase the availability of major cations and phosphorus, total N and soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) that ultimately improve results. The high nutrient availability for plants is the result of increased nutrients directly from biochar, increasing nutrient retention, and change the dynamics of soil microbes. Long-term advantages for the availability of nutrients associated with organic carbon stabilization of higher along with the release of nutrients more slowly than the organic material used. Role of biochar to increase crop productivity is affected by the amount added. Granting of 0.4 to 8 tc ha-1 has been reported to significantly increase the productivity of between 20-220%. Each year waste forestry, farming, agriculture and livestock containing hundreds of millions of tons of carbon and is often a problem in terms of disposal. This type of waste is a potentially material is converted into biochar in various stages of production technology. As a simple illustration, from 50 million tons of grain production every year participate generated about 60 million tons a "iimbah" (straw and rice husks) that can be processed into biochar.

          The addition of biochar into the soil at several studies show a variety of benefits in terms of soil quality Touch ups, such as
• Increases cation exchange capacity (CEC)
• Reduce soil acidity
• Improving soil structure
• Increase water holding capacity (water holding capacity)
• Improving the efficiency of fertilization
• Reduce CH4 and N2O are released into the air
• Reduces aluminum toxicity
• Improving microbial soil respiration
• Improve the soil microbial biomass
• Stimulates symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes
• Increase the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

           The advantages of using biochar is certainly not universal, the results vary based on the type of soil.
           Biochar found in soil worldwide as a result of vegetation fires and historic soil management practices. Intensive study of biochar-rich dark earth in the Amazon (terra preta / ground charcoal), has led to a wider appreciation of the unique properties of biochar as a soil enhancer. In Indonesia, especially in the rural areas of Kalimantan was also found that the soil has a characteristic yng equal to those in the Amazon region. This land is derived from sitsem slash fuel that had been applied since ancient times. Shifting cultivation - including the method of "slash and burn" and "slash charcoal" - practiced by many tribes. In the method of "slash and burn", wood-trunked trees and plants were cut down and burned to prepare the land for planting - in this way resulted in soil nutrients that increase productivity for a while. When the burning is done thoroughly and left only ashes, soil enrichment not long survive longer and the land must be left unused before it is ready for reuse. However, the method is only partially burned, or "slash and charcoal", can improve soil structure and provide nutrients storage more durable derived from a variety of sources, but it seems to reflect the food processing and waste associated with human existence. Over time, if the cleaning cycle nutrients charcoal repeatedly occurs, the result will be the formation ade (anthropogenic black earth). Improved soil fertility allows indigenous peoples to maintain their livelihoods without the use of expensive chemical fertilizers. It also helps the preservation of forest biodiversity and carbon sequestration by five to seven times, which can last for centuries, even millennia, compared with the surrounding rainforest.

and if you are looking for biochar and confused as where to get it please visit Biochar Soil Improvement, and you can choose according to the needs of your plants growing media.

And please you can download a collection of video tutorials about farming in here for free.

source : BPPI

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About PGPR and Benefits For Plants

PGPR Definition
PGPR is a type of bacteria that live around the plant roots. The bacteria colonize his life enveloped plant roots. For plants where microorganisms will be very good. These bacteria provide benefits in the process of plant physiology and plant growth boosters growth Rhizobakteria (RPTT) is a group of beneficial bacteria that aggressive occupying (colonize) rhizosphere (root section). RPTT activities beneficial to the plants, either directly or indirectly. RPTT direct influence based on its ability to provide and mobilize or facilitate the absorption of various nutrients in the soil as well as synthesize and transform fithothormon concentration hyper growth. While indirect related to the ability of suppressing the activity of a pathogen by producing a variety of compounds or metabolites such as nutrient providers antibiotik. a number of bacteria living in root rhizosphere (rhizobacteria) called rhizobacteria boosters grow plants (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria = PGPR). This group has a dual role in the side (1) anchored N2, too; (2) produce growth hormones (such as IAA, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, and others); (3) suppress plant diseases soil origin with glucanase, chitinase, cyanide produce siderophores; and (4) dissolving the P and other nutrients (Cattelan et al., 1999; Glick et al., 1995; Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was first investigated by Kloepper and Scroth (1982) to describe a soil bacteria that inhabit the root zone the plants are inoculated into the seed and could increase plant growth. Since it was first introduced by Kloepper and Scroth (1982), PGPR has developed very quickly, especially in the last few years. PGPR is Around the Root, root is the source of life, there occurs an exchange air, nutrients, decomposition etc. The function of PGPR for the plant that is able to stimulate the growth and physiology of root and capable of reducing disease or damage by insects. Another function is in addition to compost and accelerate the composting process. Reduction of pesticides and crop rotation can spur the growth of the population of bacteria - beneficial bacteria such as PGPR.
About PGPR and Benefits

Applications PGPR is able to reduce the incidence and severity of disease. Some PGPR inoculated bacteria on the seeds before planting can give the defense on the hood of the roots of plants. This makes PGPR bacteria capable of reducing the severity of disease dumping-off (Pythium ultimatum) in the plant. Some PGPR bacteria capable of producing toxic to plant pathogens, such as bacteria Bacillus subtilis capable against fungal pathogens.

PGPR can improve plant growth through: the production of growth hormone N fixation ability to increase soil N supply, producing osmolit as osmoprotektan in drought stress conditions and producing specific compounds that can kill plant pathogens (Kloepper, 1993).

According to Lalande et al. (1989), Pseudomonas sp. able to produce plant growth hormone boosters can increase the dry weight of corn plants reach 9%, while Salmonella liquefaciens increase dry weight reached 10% and Bacillus sp. improve dry weight reaches 7% higher than controls.

Here are the advantages of PGPR include:
  • Increase of nitrogen fixation in pea crops - beans
  • Stimulating the growth of bacterial nitrogen fixation free
  • Increasing the availability of other nutrients like phosphate, sulfur, iron and copper
  • Producing plant hormones
  • Adding beneficial bacteria and fungi
  • Controlling pests and plant diseases
Similarly, a review of what the PGPR may be useful for farmers, and to learn about how to make PGPR can be read also "how to make PGPR".

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Easy Ways to Make Organic Fertilizer Good and True

The use of organic fertilizer lately so rapidly and making the need for organic fertilizer to be increasing, it is I say natural that seeing the conditions that exist in our environment, in this case the agricultural land which is getting damaged, the use of chemical fertilizers redundant with the added use of herbicides chemical pesticides and uncontrolled, whereas they have a goal to increase agricultural productivity in fact the result upside down with declining productivity and more severe environmental damage in this case the land becomes damaged.
organic fertilizer
Damaged land was not only caused by the use of chemicals, it turns out organic fertilizers also contribute to the quality of the land, so the less the content of organic matter in soil fertility and soil health is also declining, this has been my pillowcase on how to measuring soil fertility, in the review turned out to be the role of organic fertilizer in the soil is instrumental in soil fertility. And in practice I had already proved it with yields increasing, indeed I need three years to be able to remove the dependency of chemical fertilizers on soil conditions that I have said already damaged, but with patience taking care of the soil with organic fertilizers sustainable manner I finally feel the results with productivity and quality of the crop is getting better and of course I get the crop yields into a healthy food.

Seeing the condition of the soil less fertile, farmers will begin to look back to the past in using wisely the agricultural sector, one of them shared with the ground the way gives organic fertilizer for the land to be used sustainable manner. and we also know that the organic materials are widely available around us and easy to obtain, because basically all organic materials could be utilized into organic fertilizer. how to make organic fertilizer that is good and true.? Well I happen to have personal experience in the manufacture of organic fertilizer by using aerobic microbes (Streptomyces sp, Geobacillus sp and Trichoderma sp), these microbes work in accelerating the decomposing organic matter into organic fertilizer, although naturally also can but you will need a long time.

Before we discuss how to make organic fertilizer that is good and right, we need to know in advance the benefits of organic fertilizer for plants, soil, and ecosystems are naturally in the soil.

The benefits of using organic fertilizer that will be felt by farmers or in gardening
  • Increasing productivity from agricultural land. Due with increased levels of organic matter and nutrients in the soil, then by itself soil will form a good, including properties, chemically and biological soil or agricultural land.
  • Increase cation exchange capacity, buffering capacity and water holding capacity
  • Organic fertilizers contain macro and micro elements are more complete than with chemical fertilizers
  • Organic fertilizer will give life to the soil microorganisms
  • Has the ability to mobilize or bridging nutrients in the soil so that it will form the ion particles are easily absorbed by plants
  • Has the ability to release nutrient soil very slowly and continuously, so that will help prevent excess supply of nutrients that make the plant poisoning
  • Being able to keep moisture from the soil, thus reducing the pressure or stress on the plant soil structure
  • Being able to help prevent erosion of topsoil
  • Being able to maintain and take care of soil fertility
following my experience with the media to make organic fertilizer animal manure (goat):

     Material :
  • Animal manure (+ - 10 tons).
  • Bran / bran 25kg.
  • Decomposers 20 ltr (culture results) / 200ltr after dissolved with water (not tap water or that have been sterilized, can - can follow the bacteria die)
  • Husk (4 sacks).
    Tool - a tool used:
  • Hoe.
  • Spades.
  • Gloves (for those who fear dirty)
    The easy way of making organic fertilizers:
  • Place the organic material in the open field, if you do not have land to organic fertilizer you can use a compost tumbler, because it is very suitable for that do not have a land area.
  • Make the first layer + - 25 cm evenly, then sprinkle bran and rice husk over the first layer evenly.
  • Flush bacteria or microbes in the top of the first layer up the average.
  • Puts a second layer on top of the first layer and is composed of organic material the same as the first layer and flush back microbial decomposers, and can be done like this until you run out of organic materials.
  • To speed up the composting on the 5th day to do a reversal / media mixing, if the media is dry you can flush it with water, and if the place you can get rice water then you can use this as rice water also contains nutrients for plants (for facilitate you get it you can provide a bucket or a place to store the water the rice from your neighbor who wants to cook rice).
  • To produce good results can be carried out at least until day 15 days /already 3x media processing by reversed the organic fertilizer (when media is hot if you can wait a few days until the condition is not hot, usually marked with colored materials blackened).
  • After the completion of the organic fertilizer is ready to use / its way to the ground.
description: the material composition can be adjusted to the conditions of organic materials that are around you / your liking.

So that was my experience on how to make organic fertilizer from waste animal manure, may be useful for you, and easy - I hope we can keep the soil to remain fertile in order to achieve the productivity and quality of agricultural products is getting better and certainly as a legacy for the generations after us. . Thanks "greeting Agriculture".
"WE CAN AND ABLE"


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Easy Ways Plant Bark Cultivation of Good and True

Plant bark, sweet fruit skinned exotic scales blackish brown with white flesh to yellowish milk, is quite popular among the people of Indonesia. Especially pondoh (Salacca edulis), which is one of the favorite fruits that each fruiting season, there is at the dinner table, or popular as souvenirs. Plant bark besides eaten directly as fresh fruit, can be consumed after being canned fruit, or after processed into salad, candied, pickled, or chips. Moreover, the efficacy of bark to cure diarrhea (diarrhea-diarrhea). Cultivars tree bark that has many fans among the other is pondoh with flesh which is sweet and crunchy texture (crunchy).
 Plant Bark Cultivation

BRIEF HISTORY BARK
Plant bark is one of the favored fruit crops and have a good prospect for the effort. Her area of ​​origin is not clear, but is thought of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. There is also a reply saying that plants (Salacca edulis) from the island of Java. In the colonial period bark seeds brought by merchants to spread throughout Indonesia, even to the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand.

TYPES OF PLANTS BARK
In this world known to bark wildly, like Salacca dransfieldiana JP Mo-gea; S. magnifera JP Mogea; S. minuta; S. & S. multiflora romosiana. In addition to the wild barking, barking wildly still known more as Salacca rumphili Wallich ex. Blume also called S. wallichiana, C. Martus called rakum / kumbar (popular in Thailand) as a maker of fresh sour on cuisine. This kumbar not prickly, flowers married 2 (dioeciious). Plant bark including the family: Palmae (palm-paleman), monocots, long leaves with a strong main vein as the coconut is called a stick. All parts of the leaves are prickly sharp short trunk, eventually rising to 3 m or more, finally collapsed unable to carry the burden of the crown of leaves is too heavy (not comparable with a small stem). Many varieties of bark that can grow in Indonesia. There were young has been felt sweet, yielding varieties that have been released by the government to be developed are: pondoh, swaru, Nglumut, Enrekang, rock sugar (Bali), and others. Actually kind of barked in Indonesia there are 3 striking differences, namely: Java bark Salacca zalacca (Gaertner) Voss 2-3 grains which have seeds, bark Bali Slacca amboinensis (Becc) Mogea were seeded 1 to 2 grains, and barked Mulberry Salacca sumatrana (Becc) fleshy red. Types of bark that have commercial value eminence.

BENEFIT PLANT BARK
Fruits only eaten fresh or made preserves and pickles. At this time candied bark is made with the skin, unpeeled. The trunk can not be used for building materials or firewood. Ripe fruit presented as a table fruit. Fresh fruit traded usually still in bunches or have been removed (seed). Fruits are picked at month 4 or 5 is usually to be made sweets.

GROWTH CONDITIONS BARK
1. Climate
Bark of plants when grown in the appropriate climate berzona Aa bcd, Babc & Cbc. A higher mean number of wet months (11-12 months / years), B: 8-10 months / year & C: 5-7 months / year.
Plant bark will grow well in areas with an average rainfall of 200-400 mm per year / month. Rainfall monthly average of more than 100 mm is considered in the wet months. Means the bark requires a degree of wetness or high humidity.
Barked plants can not tolerate full sun (100%), but sufficient 50-70%, because it is necessary to plant shade.
The best temperature is between 20-30 ° C. Plant bark require high humidity, but not stand waterlogging.
2. Land
Barked plants like fertile soil, loose and moist.
The degree of soil acidity (pH) suitable for cultivation bark is 4.5 to 7.5.
Garden bark can not stand waterlogging. For growth requires high humidity.
3. Altitude

Bark plants grow at altitude of 100-500 m above sea level.

GUIDELINES FOR RAISING BARK

Seeding
One factor to consider in seeking barking plant is the use of quality seeds and quality. Barking plant is an annual plant, because it is an error in the use of seeds would be bad in his own efforts, although treated with good technical culture will not give the desired results, so the issued capital will not return because of the losses in the agricultural business. To avoid such problems, there should be a good way of breeding bark. Breeding bark can be derived from seed (generative) or of tillers (vegetative). Nurseries generative is the nursery by using good seed obtained from parent trees that have good qualities, namely: rapid fruiting, fruit throughout the year, the fruit of many and uniform, plant growth is good, resistant to pests and diseases as well as environmental influences less profitable.

Profit generative seed multiplication:
  • Can be done easily and cheap
  • Obtained the seeds that many
  • Resultant plants grow healthier and live longer
  • To transport grain and seed storage easier
  • Resultant plants have strong roots so that the lodging resistance and drought
  • Allowing repair properties held in the form of a cross.
Disadvantages generative propagation:
  • The quality of the fruit produced is not identical to the mother plant because of possible cross-pollination.
  • rather difficult to know whether the seeds produced by the male or female.

Seed Requirements
To get a good seed to do the selection of seeds that will be used as seed. The terms of seeds that will be used as seed:
  • Seeds derived from parent trees that qualify.
  • Fruit seeds must be taken in the quotation at the time of age.
  • Have the ability to grow a minimum of 85%.
  • Large grain size uniform and not disabled.
  • Healthy seeds not attacked by pests and diseases.
  • Seed pure and not mixed with other impurities.
Preparation of Seeds
Seeds from Seed:
  • Seeds bark is cleaned from the remnants of flesh still attached.
  • Soak in water for 24 hours, then washed.
Seedlings of nymphs:
  • Choose a good chicks and comes from a good parent
  • Prepare pieces of bamboo, then filled with soil media.
Seeding techniques Seed
Seeds from Seed:
  • Seeds of bark that have been soaked and washed, put into a plastic bag that has been drilled (wet jute sacks), then put in the shade and moist until germination aged 20-30 days.
  • One month later given Urea, TSP and KCl, respectively 5 grams, every 2-3 weeks
  • So that the humidity up, did watering every day
Seedlings from the nursery saplings with wooden tub:
  • Create a wooden tub with a size of 25 cm height, width and length tailored to the needs
  • Filled with lush and fertile soil thickness of 15-20 cm
  • On land filled with sand 5-10 cm thick
  • Directions South & North seedbed given shade overlooking the East
  • Seeds are soaked in a solution of hormones such as Atonik for 1 hour, the solution concentration 0.01-0.02 cc / liter of water
Planting seeds in the nursery tub with a distance of 10 x 10 cm
Directions seeds embedded in an upright position, tilt / fall with buds under
Maintenance Nurseries / Seeding: For breeding of seeds, seeding media is polybag with size 20 x 25 cm were filled with soil mix manure in the ratio 2: 1. After the seeds or sprouts new age of 20-30 days the seedlings were transferred to polybags. Nursery with seedlings system, bamboo seedling is placed just below the bark, then watered every day. After 1 month of the roots have grown and puppies separated from its mother, then planted in polybags. Urea, TSP, KCl was given one month as much as 1 teaspoon.
Seed removal: For seeds from seed, seedling bark after a 4 month old recently moved into agricultural land. For the nursery of saplings, after 6 months of the new seedlings can be moved to the field.
Land processing
Preparation: Determination of the plantation area to bark must take into account the ease of transportation and water resources.
Clearing:
Dismantling the plant that are not needed and turn off the reeds and eliminate weeds and shrubs from planting areas.
Plowing the soil to remove soil that is too big chunk.
Planting Techniques
Hole Making Plant: Planting hole is made with a size of 30 x 30 x 30 cm with a spacing of 1 x 4 m; 2 x 2 m or 1.5 x 2.5 m. The size of the holes can also be made of 50 x 50 x 40 cm, with a spacing of 2 x 4 m or 3 x 4 m. Each hole manure which has become as much as 10 kg.
Planting: Seeds sown directly in holes totaling 3- 4 seeds per hole. A month later the seeds start to grow
Other: To avoid full sun, barking plants grown under shade plants such as coconut, durian, lamtoro and so on. If the land is still no shade plants, can be planted as a shade plant as banana plants. Spacing shade trees adjusted according to the size of the area planted with coconut canopy for example a distance of 10 x 10 m, durian 12 x 12 m and lamtoro 12 x 12 m.
Plant Maintenance
When finished planting, plant bark needs to be maintained properly and regularly in order to obtain a good production and productive garden. Maintenance is carried out until the end of the production plant bark.
Spacing & Stitching: To obtain large-sized pieces, then when the bunches have already started meeting needs thinning. Thinning usually performed at month 4 or 5. Stitching performed on young plants or newly planted, but die or their growth is less good or a dwarf, or for example, too many plants females. For the purposes of replanting we need to plant a backup (usually needs to be provided 10%) of the total, the rest with other crops. The beginning of the rainy season is very appropriate to do stitching. Plants reserves transferred by way round, which included most of the land area covered roots. When dismantle the plant, part of the base as well as our soil with plastic wrap so that roots in the inside is protected from damage, done with caution.
Weeding: Weeding is to remove and wash the weeds or other invasive plant that grows in the garden barking. Weeds commonly called this weed if not eradicated would be a contender for fight in barking plant nutrients and water. The first weeding is done when the plants are 2 months old after the seeds are planted, the next weeding is done every 3 months to a year old plant. After the weeding is done every 6 months or 2 times in one year, conducted at the beginning and end of the rainy season.
Crumble: While performing weeding, tilling the soil also conducted subject to the barking plant. This is done to save on labor costs as well as to the efficiency of the treatment. Soil dug to form a mound that serves to strengthen the roots and stems of plants bark in place. not to damage the existing trench.
Pruning: The leaves are old and not useful should be trimmed. Also leaves that are too dense or damaged attacked by pests. Shoots too much to be thinned, especially approaching moments of fruit trees (pruning). With pruning, hedge bark so that the garden is not too dense humid and stuffy due to substandard air circulation improved. Pruning also helps spread the food in order not only to leaf or vegetative parts, but also to flowers, fruit or generative part in a balanced way. Pruning is done every 2 months, but when nearing flowering or fruiting pruning we do more often, namely 1 month 1 times. If the bark clumps are some saplings, seedlings reductions do ahead of fruiting plants. One clump barked enough we keep 1 or 2 tillers. Maximum number of tillers 3-4 fruits at one clump. When more of the puppies will disrupt plant productivity. Bark leaf pruning should arrive at the leaf base. Do not just cut in half or in part the leaves, because the part that is left actually has no use for plants. Pruning during the past harvest must still be done. Pruning tool you should use a sharp machete or chainsaw. Trimming is carried out on time and the right way will help the plants grow well and optimally.
Fertilization: All materials are given to plants with the intention to provide additional nutrients to improve the growth and production of crops is called fertilizer. There fertilizer provided through the root zone of the plant (root fertilizer). Fertilizer applied by spraying via the leaves of the plants (foliar fertilizer). There are 2 kinds of fertilizer types: organic and inorganic fertilizers. Organic fertilizer is manure, green manure, compost, plant ash, blood meal and so on. Inorganic fertilizers are: Ure, TSP, Kcl, ZA, NPK Hidrasil, Gandasil, Super Phosphate, Bay folan, Green Zit, and so on. Organic fertilizers are often given to barking plant is manure. Age of plants:
0-12 months (1 x month): Manure 1000, 5 grams of Urea, TSP 5 grams, 5 grams KCl.
12-24 months (1 x 2 months): 10 grams Urea, TSP 10 grams, 10 grams KCl.
24-36 months (1 x 3 months): Urea 15 grams, 15 grams TSP, KCl 15 grams.
36-dst (1 x 6 months): Urea 20 grams, 20 grams TSP, KCl 20 grams.
Irrigation & Watering: Rainwater is a natural spray for plants, but it is difficult to regulate rainwater in order to comply with the required plant. Rainwater will largely be lost through evaporation, percolation and runoff. A small fraction retained in the root zone, the remaining water is often not meet the needs of the plant. in the cultivation of bark, during growth, the need for water to be fulfilled, for that we need to give the water to the time, manner and amount as appropriate.
Other maintenance: Once planted in the garden we make sustainer of bamboo or wood to keep the plant does not collapse.

PEST & DISEASE BARK
Pest
Lice wool / white (Cerataphis sp.): These pests lurking on the sidelines of the fruit.
Bud weevil (Omotemnus sp ..)

Stem weevil:
Attacking the leaf tips ang young (the youngest), then going way into the stem. It does not cause the death of the plant, but it will grow saplings that much inside the trunk.

Control: turned off or by dripping a solution of insecticide (Diazenon) at a dose of 2 cc per liter at the end of the affected leaves or by spraying. in this case attempted insecticide can enter into a former pit that was attacked. Insert the wire ends that taper into the hole created by the pest beetles.
Wild boar, squirrels, mice and ferrets

Control:
to eradicate wild boar, held by a special shooting, or fence in the garden barking with bark-bark meeting males. It would be better if the garden barking fence with barbed wire;
to eradicate rats, used Zink phosphit, klerat and others;
 to eradicate civets and squirrels, can be used bait bananas entered Furadan 3 G.
How: banana split, approximately 0.5 grams of Furadan put into it, then bananas are sewn and used as bait.

Disease Bark
A disease that often attacks the bark is white fungus countrymen,
Symptoms: rotten fruit. The fruit of this disease so the quality is declining, because of the skin color of bark so unattractive.
Control: reduced soil moisture, which reduces the protective trees.
Black stain :
Cause: The fungus Pestalotia sp.
Symptoms: the existence of dark patches on the leaf bark.
Red rot (pink):
Cause: The fungus Corticium salmonicolor.
Symptoms: the decay of fruits and stems.
Control: diseased and affected leaves should be cut and burned in a certain place.
Weeds

In some places in Java, barking land built on former rice fields. So that automatically weeds dominate the garden are weeds commonly found in rice fields. Wetland usual because stagnant water drained and cultivated land, the weeds that survived is the narrow-leaved weeds and growing creeper that very few are in the fields. Weeds are trunked upright skinny, long-leaved generally less able to survive in the rice fields. That is why the weeds in paddy land formerly used relatively little. Control manually or hoeing was already adequate. Chemical weeding in gardens bark commonly implemented yet. For land that is not how large, farmers still use the manual method (pulling grass by hand or hoe). When the bark is quite spacious land, as well as the newly opened, there are certainly a lot of weeds difficult to eradicate once and only by hand. For such situations need to use herbicides, because labor costs are relatively low and the results are faster. Chemical reactions in the killing of wild plants is also very fast. Herbicides have a negative effect, because they contain toxins that can harm other living beings including animals and humans.

HARVEST BARK
Good quality fruits obtained when harvesting is done at a good level of maturity. Unripe fruits, if levied will feel sweet. So harvesting is done by picking select, where lies the difficulty. So we have to really know the fruits that are old but not yet ripe.
Characteristics and Harvest: The fruit bark can be harvested after ripe on the tree, usually aged 6 months after the flowers bloom (anthesis). It is characterized by scales that have rarely, fruit skin color dark red or dark yellow, and feathers have been lost. End skin fruit (fruit tapered section) feels soft when pressed. Signs of old fruit, according to other sources are: the color is shiny (smooth), if taken easily separated from the stem bark of fruit and scented.
How to Harvest harvest ways: as fruits ripening in unison, then the quotation chosen. to consider in picking whether the fruits will be stored longer or be eaten immediately. If stored longer picking will be done when the fruits old, so do not be too old trees. Fruits that are old are not durable stored. Harvesting is done by cutting the fruit stalk clusters.
Harvest Period: bark plant in harvest time there are four seasons:
Harvest in November, December and January
The harvest was in May, June & July
Small harvest in the months of February, March and April.
Blank period / breaks in the months of August, September and October. When in these months there are fruits so-called fruit slandren. According to another source a large harvest of fruits is between the months of October to January.
Forecast production: the cultivation of bark, which can be achieved in the result of the growing season was 15 tonnes per hectare.

Postharvest BARK
Like the other fruits, fruits are easily damaged and not durable. Damage is characterized by a foul odor and the fruit flesh becomes flabby and brownish. Once picked fruits still continue the process of life in the form of physiological processes (changes in color, respiration, the process of biochemical and functional overhaul with the spoilage by microorganisms). So that the fruits can not be stored longer in a fresh state, it is necessary to post-harvest handling.
Collection: Warehouse serves as a receiver collecting fruits from farmers or the garden. This is done in the warehouse collection: sorting, grading and packaging.
Sorting & Classification: Sorting / selection aims to pick good fruit, not disabled, and worthy of export. also aims to clean up the fruits of various materials as useless as stalks, twigs and dirt. The materials are cut with a knife, a sickle, sharp pruning shears does not rust so that does not cause damage to the fruit. Grading / classification aims to:
  • Gets the fruit of uniform (size and quality)
  • Facilitate the preparation in the container / crate / container tool
  • Get a higher price
  • Stimulates interest to buy
  • So the calculation is easier
  • For estimating temporary income.
This classification can be based on: a heavy, large, shape, form, color, style, independent of the presence or absence of disease and disability / injury. All of it is put into classes and groups on their own.
  • Bark quality of AA (really super, yellow, 1kg = 12 pieces)
  • Bark quality AB (not too big, not too small, and healthy)
  • Bark quality C (for sweets, 1kg = 25-30 pieces)
  • Bark quality BS (1/2 rotten or broken), not sold.
     3. Packaging & Transportation
The purpose of packaging is to protect fruits from damage, ease in preparation, both in transportation and in the warehouse and to simplify the calculation. There packaging for fresh fruit and for candied bark. Packaging for fresh fruit:
  • The packaging must be perforated tool
  • Must be strong, so that the fruits are protected from external pressure
  • Can be transported easily
  • The packaging size should be adjusted by the amount of fruit.
Packaging for candied bark: packed in tightly closed cans that have been sterilized so that all microbes such as fungi, yeasts, bacteria and enzymes can die and will not cause the process of decay. For candied dried, generally packed in plastic. Freight is an important link in the handling, storage and distribution of fruits. The terms of carriage for fruits:
  • Freight must be done quickly and precisely.
  • Packaging and transport of auspicious conditions to ensure the preservation of a high quality.
  • Expectations for considerable profit by using transport facilities were adequate.
Thus the discussion about the Easy Ways Plant Bark Cultivation of Good and True, may be useful and good luck.

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