Papaya (Carica papaya) is a tropical fruit. This plant is believed to originate from the tropics in the Americas. From this place spread to various parts of the world.
Good soil drainage is needed in the cultivation of papaya. Stagnant water will cause root rot in papaya plants. These plants require loose soil with good porosity and soil pH around 6-7.
Nature papaya plants
Papaya is a herbaceous plant that can grow up to 3 meters. Papaya stem hollow, soft tissues and watery. This plant has a taproot and the roots of the soft side. Shallow root growth and somewhat weaker.
Papaya flowers grow in axillary, either single or sequence of interest. There are three types of papaya flowers, the male flowers, female flowers and perfect flowers (having pistils and stamens or hermaphrodite).
Based on the nature of the flower, known papaya tree male, female tree and the tree perfectly. Male papaya trees will not produce fruit, while the female papaya tree will produce fruit that is rounded, flesh thin. Papaya fruit desired with an elongated shape produced from papaya tree is perfect.
Papaya Flower Males
Papaya Flower Females
Papaya Flower Hermaprodit
Selection of papaya seeds
Here the author uses Indonesian origin seed varieties Calina IPB9. For the cultivation of papaya seeds obtained from selected seeds. To get as many perfect papaya trees required accuracy and skill in selecting candidates for the seed. The good seed is obtained from the papaya fruit produced perfect tree. Elongated fruit shape, not defective and free of disease. The fruit as much as possible left to ripen on the tree.
Papaya seeds contained in the fruit cavity, there is a dark black color there is a pale white. White seeds are seeds that die will not grow. Black seeds that can grow into a tree, but only about 25-50% being perfect tree depending on the nature of genetics. The rest becomes a tree female and male trees. Seeds that grow at the end of the fruit has the possibility to grow into a perfect papaya tree over the base. To select seed should take seed on the tip until the middle of the fruit. Do not take the seeds from the fruit base.
Before seeded, the seeds need to germinate which still dry first. It is useful to shorten the time the cultivation of papaya. First soak the seeds in lukewarm water for one night. Then select the seeds that sink, if any seeds that float in the water can be separated by seed sink, because a very small proportion grew from seeds that float.
Prepare tissue paper / rags for packaging, wet wipes / rag with water. Sprinkle the seeds that have been soaked on paper towels and then close it with a tissue and flush or wet. Enter the package seeds in baskets (woven bamboo boxes) or other similar container. Place or container must be able to penetrate the water or drain water from the experience usually in clear plastic wrap then d wrap again with black plastic, then hung in a shaded let a little sunlight, the germination of seeds need a temperature of about 30 degrees Celsius. The seeds will sprout after 7-10 days or may be, during that time maintained humidity seedling media, if the media can be sprayed dried ..
Once the seeds germinate into seedlings, move-sprouts sprouts are in polybag seedlings, the seedlings one polybag. Choose a small polybag with size 9 × 15 cm. Previously, the contents of the media polybag nursery consists of soil, compost, rice husk which has been sieved with a ratio of 1: 1: 1.
Once the seedlings are transferred wet media to keep moisture. Then place these in a polybag polybag-shaded nursery chamber. Shade can be made of clear plastic or paranet. Its function is to protect the seedlings from the disbursement of direct rain, sun and wind, Seedlings ready to move to the land openly after the age of 40-50 days from seedling, you are still confused on papaya seedlings to be successful.? if yes, you can see the tips of my video easy guide to nursery papaya, so that you can be successful in nurseries papaya..
Another article : Seed One Of The Determinants For Successful Farming
Tillage and planting
Here is a processing area for papaya cultivation in dry land or a stretch of non terracing. First, hoeing or plowed land to loosen the soil. Then create beds with a width of 2 meters, the length adjusting landform and 20-30 cm high. The distance between beds width 50 cm. Spacing should be adapted to the cultivation of papaya acreage, many technical problems planting distance, there is the use of 2 x 2, 2 x 2,5, and some are using 2,25 x 2,75m, while from personal experience using a 2.1 X 2.5 meters ,
Make the planting hole according to plant spacing, planting hole size 50 x 50 x 40 cm. We recommend making holes for planting are not in the rainy season. When digging the planting hole, remove top soil to bottom soil. Leave the hole open for 1-2 weeks.
Mixed with basic fertilizers such as compost or manure that has been cooked with top soil. 20 kg fertilizer per planting hole. Then enter the first ground into the bottom of the planting hole, then insert the top of the soil. Let the back of the planting hole that has been closed for 1-2 weeks.
For the record, to soil that has a pH below 5 neutralize with lime or dolomite. Dose of 0.1 kg of lime per hole. Giving dolomite at least at least 1 week before planting, and for clay should not have made the planting hole, immediately make a mound with the provision of compost in the planting area scatterplot, suppose more in sandy land required to make the planting hole.
After the planting hole is ready, remove the seeds from the polybag seedlings to the planting hole. Seedlings are ready to be moved at least 45 days after sowing. Do watering in the morning or late afternoon until at least 1.5 months old plant since moved / when planted during the dry season.
There are two habits of farmers in the cultivation of papaya, which is to plant a seed in the planting hole or two seeds in one hole seedling. The purpose of planting two seeds to avoid the growth of papaya papaya males and females as well as facilitate stitching.
At 2-3 months, when the first flowering of papaya, papaya revoke the selection for undesirable. In the end only one perfect papaya per planting hole that is allowed to grow to fruition.
Papaya cultivation care
Stitching plant after the plant was carried out 2 months after planting. Plants that grow ugly or diseased repealed and replaced by the new seeds. When using two seeds in the planting hole, simply unplug the plants that look good.
Here are some tips given by Prof. Sobir of Tropical Fruit Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, to select the perfect papaya plants.
- Observe when the flowering trees for the first time. Flowers grow in the armpit leaves. When the flower that grows single, female flowers or flower means perfect. This interest came out at age 2-3 months. When a group or in a series of means male, the tree should be removed and embroidered with other seeds.
- Pluck the flowers and then press the edges with the thumbs up to open, when the flowers are out the male trees means this is the perfect tree to be maintained. Perfect flower will appear 1-2 months later.
- When pressed out after the female flowers, means this tree female tree. Means should be repealed.
- Then the plants were revoked embroidery with new seedlings. Or, if we apply the method of planting two trees in the planting hole, move the perfect tree from another hole. Due to the hole can only be raised one perfect tree.
Fertilization aftershocks started 2 weeks after the seedlings are transferred. Fertilization is given by digging a trench encircling the papaya plant. Trench depth of approximately 5-10 cm, mix the fertilizer is placed in the trench. The following provisions papaya cultivation fertilization:
- The first fertilization, the age of 2 weeks, 30 g Urea, SP-36 40 g, ZA 40 g and KCl 20 grams per tree.
- Fertilization second, the age of 1 month, 40 g Urea, SP-36 70 g, ZA 70 g and KCl 30 grams per tree.
- Fertilization third, 4 months old, 45 g Urea, SP-36 80 g, ZA 80 g and KCl 60 grams per tree.
- The fourth fertilizing, age 6 months, 50 g Urea, SP-36 90 g, ZA 90 g and KCl 70 grams per tree.
- Fertilization then every month, 60 g Urea, SP-36 100 g, ZA 100 g and KCl 75 g per tree
The fertilization of personal experience as follows:
- Fertilization 1, age 0.5 months, ZA 15gr, SP-36 15gr and 20gr Ponska NPK.
- Fertilization 2 and 3 / when Unur 1.5 and 2.5 bln, ZA 10gr, SP-36 30gr and 60gr Ponska NPK.
- Fertilization to 3 and 4 / at the age of 4.5 and 5.5 bln SP-36 NPK Ponska 100gr and 100gr.
- Fertilization to 4 onwards at the age of 6.5 and onwards every month SP-36 NPK Ponska 100gr and 200gr.
- Leaf fertilizer application with maximum interfal 10hri once, adjusted to the future plant.
- Organic matter / organic fertilizer to the soil and the plants regularly every month adjusted with the development of the plant, the more organic matter will be one of the indicators of soil fertility ..
More looks best when fertilization can be done with a balanced fertilization, with the use of pepuk biological, organic fertilizer, and chemical fertilizers, can see the benefits of nutrients to the plants here, the benefits of organic materials can be viewed here or how to make organic fertilizer here.
Pests and Diseases
1. Whiteflies / Fleas leaves
Attack aphids (Aphis gossypii usually of the type and Myzuspersicae) like a vampire, they will suck the liquid in the leaves until they run out. As a result, the leaves dry and frizzy.
In addition to sucking the liquid in the leaves, these pests once hooked carry other diseases. Aphids will carry other diseases (vectors) such as viruses and greenish-yellow discharge that invites ants and fungi to cause black as soot layer on the surface of leaves.
Technically, quotation and destroy the leaves that have been attacked. Note also the cleanliness of the garden. Spraying using the insecticide in the afternoon in order to be effective.
2. Pests Thrips
Attacks trips usually intensified during the dry season and is often seen in the Area of flowers and in the bung. These pests also act as carriers of the virus and spreads very easily.
Control is technically able to utilize the natural predators of these pests, such as beetles and ladybugs. Maintaining the cleanliness of the garden (remember, the base healthy clean .. yes) effectively suppress development. In addition, crop rotation helps control pests of this type. Spraying is done when a widespread attack. Use insecticides according to the instructions and in roling that are not resistant pests and spraying in the afternoon.
3. Pests Mites
Yellow mites attack (Polyphagustarsonemus), or red mite (Tetranycus sp) will cause leaf curl rolling down like a spoon shape inverted. The leaves will be stiff and thick, shoot growth becomes stunted, the leaves will slowly turns brown and eventually die.
The attack occurred at the dry season, in the shaded area. Well this is to watch, the population would increase if we use too many pesticides or chemical fertilizers artificial leaf that contains sulfur (sulfur). The spread can occur through the hands of the workers or the wind.
To prevent this, try the papaya growing areas not adjacent to the cassava plant. Maintaining the cleanliness of the garden turned out to effectively reduce mite attack ... .bersih healthy base also applies here.
In the onslaught, spraying with insecticides less effective, but quite effectively by using poison mites (acaricides). Control is recommended good sanitation.
4. Fruit Flies
These pests can cause flower and fruit will be a loss and can cause us to fail to harvest. And may shatter all our dreams ... serious.
- Pest fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, B. carambolae) can be sourced from the infected fruit, the pupae in the soil, from host plants such as cucumbers, starfruit, or derived from plants that have been attacked by adjacent chili
- Dissemination and transmission occurs very easily because the fly is one type of insect (insect) enabled flew especially during the transitional seasons.
- Attacks usually occur after a rather late, ie after the plants dried up from the morning dew.
Ovary which fall to be cleansed then keep more precisely if burned, curry ovaries that have been hit are usually found eggs of fruit flies itself in place role in the ovaries, can also make a fly trap, can you buy at the farm shop. Flies stimulated to enter the trap.
Papaya Plant Disease
1. Antraknosa (Patek)
The attack pattern and distribution
The picture above occurred on chilli plants, in papaya disease is perched on plants and papaya, the source of the disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The source can originate from diseased crop residues or from seeds that are already infected. As a result of attack can occur starting at the nursery phase. The disease causes wilting sprout when planted. While the adult stage causes dieback attacks, attacks on leaves and stems causing dry rot. Meanwhile, attacks on the fruit will cause the fruit to rot like a burn.
This disease can be carried away from the seed or seeds. Prevention can be done by choosing seeds healthy and free of pathogens. Canopy conditions not too moist and not too excessive use of artificial fertilizers containing nitrogen (N). Soil containing Ca (Calcium) is low can also trigger the development. Control can be done by destroying crops / fruits were attacked and spraying by using fungicides.
2. Cercospora leaf spot disease
Leaf spot disease that attacks the papaya plant caused by the fungus Cercospora capsici. The characteristics of the affected plants are characterized by the presence of circular patches of gray with brown fringes on the leaves. When the attacks intensified leaves will yellow and eventually fall. This disease usually strikes during the rainy season which is quite high humidity conditions.
The disease is spread when fungal spores and can still be carried by the wind, rain, pests vectors, and farm tools. Fungal spores can also be attached to the seed.
- Best control is prevention. Prevention of this disease can be done by choosing a healthy seed free of pathogens.
- Loosen the planting density is useful to minimize the attack so that the environment is not too humid.
- Technical control can be done by spraying fungicides.
3. Root Rot, Stem, and fruit.
There are two kinds of rot disease that usually attacks the papaya plant, the stem rot and bud rot. Stem and fruit rot in papaya plants caused by Phytophthora capsici. Attack during the rainy season and is spreading fast.
Bud rot caused by the fungus Choanosearum sp. The disease is never any serious attacks in Indonesia. Symptoms, plant buds in black and gradually die.
Triggers progression of the disease can be:
- poor drainage
- the use of N fertilizer (urea) that is too high
- manure is not ripe
- many nematodes
- land previously planted red pepper or cucumber
This disease can be controlled by reducing the dose of nitrogen fertilizer such as urea and ZA. The use of organic fertilizer mature, to root rot if we land of clay / clay should make the planting hole, because of the risk during the rainy season. Then set a spacing for air circulation running smoothly. Plants that have been infected should be removed and burned. Spraying can be done with a fungicide.
Calina IPB9 papaya cultivation can usually be harvested on average after the age of 7 months. The frequency of harvesting can be done every 5 days. Productivity cultivation of papaya can be harvested until the age of 3-4 years with the provision of care and regular fertilization.
Papaya fruit is picked to be approaching the stage of mature trees. Character lines are yellowing of the skin of the fruit. When the harvest will be sold to distant places, can be learned early.
papaya can actually produce in a very long period of time, as long as the care you provide is excellent, good control of pests and diseases, the provision of adequate plant nutrients. and if you've papaya plants is very high and difficult to reach harvest time, you can do these tips from me. You can see my video about easy guide to rejuvenation papaya, please watch the video to completion, so you can know how to rejuvenation papaya.
Thus a brief discussion about Easy Guide to Papaya Cultivation is Good and Right, may be useful for the reader, if you want to plant papaya Calina varieties please visit fan page on Facebook Agriculture and please join in can order seeds and get direct guidance in papaya cultivation.