Plants, and other living organisms need sufficient and balanced nutrition to grow and develop properly. The following article is a summary of some of the sources to supplement our knowledge of the essential nutrients list for growth and development of our plant.
This knowledge is required at least at the time of application of fertilizer so that proper and balanced, because both excessive nutrients or nutrient deficiency can lead to plant growth is not optimal. This knowledge is necessary when we observe our process plant growth after transplanting. When plant growth is not in line with what we expect, we can do an evaluation and appropriate action before it is too late.
Broadly speaking, the plant or plant requires two types of essential nutrients to support optimal growth and development. A list of the essential nutrients that we often call was Macro Nutrients and Micro Nutrients.
Here are two types of the following nutrients usual symptoms arise, either when the deficiency or excess of these elements;
Nutrients Macro nutrients are needed plants in relatively large amounts. The list is as follows:
1. Nitrogen (N)
Nitrogen element with the symbol of N, was instrumental in the formation of plant cells, tissues, and organs of plants. Nitrogen has a primary function as a synthetic material of chlorophyll, protein, and amino acids. Therefore, the element Nitrogen is needed in large enough quantities, especially when entering a phase of vegetative growth. Together with the element phosphorus (P), Nitrogen is used to regulate plant growth overall.
There are two forms of nitrogen, namely ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3). Based on a number of research experts, prove Ammonium should be no more than 25% of the total nitrogen concentration. If excessive, the plants became a big figure but susceptible to disease. Nitrogen derived from ammonium will slow growth due to binding of carbohydrates to supply a bit. Thus the food reserve as capital for flowering will also be minimal. Consequently incapable of flowering plants. Had dominant Nitrate Nitrogen form, then the cells will be compact and robust plant that is more resistant to disease. To determine the N content and the form of nitrogen from fertilizers can be seen from the packaging.
The characteristics of the plants Nitrogen deficiency can be recognized from the bottom leaf. Yellowing leaves on the section due to lack of chlorophyll. In the further process, the leaves will dry up and fall off. The bones below the surface of young leaves will look pale. Plant growth slows, stunted and weak. As a result, the production of flowers and seeds will be low.
Excess amounts of Nitrogen also need to watch out. The characteristics of the plant when its excess N elements are leaf color is too green, leafy plant with leaves. Disposal process becomes long. Adenium will be sekulen because it contains a lot of water. It causes the plant susceptible to attack by fungi and diseases, as well as easy to collapse. Flower production will decrease.
2. Phosphorus or Phosphorus (P)
The element phosphorus (P) is a constituent component of several enzymes, proteins, ATP, RNA, and DNA. ATP is critical to energy transfer processes, while RNA and DNA determines the genetic properties of the plant. P element also plays a role in the growth of the seeds, roots, flowers, and fruit. Effect on root is the improved root structure so that absorption of the nutrients the plant becomes better.
Together with the element Potassium, Phosphorus is used to stimulate the flowering process. It was fair because the crop needs to phosphorus increased height when the plant will bloom.
Phosphorous deficiency (P)
The characteristics starting from old leaves become purple and tend to gray. Edges of leaves become brown, bone young leaves are dark green. Scorched, the growth of small leaves, stunted, and eventually fall out. A phase of slow growth and dwarf plants.
Excess Phosphorous (P)
Excess P causes the absorption of other elements, especially in trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) is disturbed. However, no visible physical symptoms in plants.
3. Potassium (K)
Element Potassium acts as a regulator of plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, accumulation, translocation, transport of carbohydrates, opening closing of stomata, or regulate the distribution of water in the tissues and cells. Disadvantages of this element causes the leaves as burned and eventually fell.
Potassium element is closely related to calcium and magnesium. There is the nature of the antagonism between potassium and calcium. And also between potassium and magnesium. The nature of this antagonism led to the defeat of one of the elements to be absorbed plant if the composition is not balanced. The element potassium is absorbed faster by the plant compared to calcium and magnesium. If the element potassium excess symptoms are similar to magnesium deficiency. Therefore, the nature of the antagonism between potassium and magnesium is greater than the nature of the antagonism between potassium and calcium. Nevertheless, in some cases, excess potassium and calcium deficiency symptoms similar plants.
K deficiency can be seen from the bottom dry leaves or spotting charred. Disadvantages of this element causes the leaves as fire and eventually falls. Easy to fall off and fall flowers. Leaf edge 'scorched', leaf roll down, and vulnerable to disease.
Excess K causing impaired absorption of Ca and Mg. Stunted plant growth. so the plants have deficiencies.
4. Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium is an activator that plays a role in energy transport several enzymes in plants. This element is very dominant presence in the leaves, especially for the availability of chlorophyll. So adequacy of magnesium is needed to expedite the process of photosynthesis. That element is also a core component of the formation of chlorophyll and enzymes in various process of protein synthesis.
Magnesium deficiency causes a number of elements not transported because little energy is available. Carried only weighs elements 'light' as nitrogen. As a result, the cells formed large but thin. Tissues become weak and long distances between segments. These characteristics exactly as etiolation-deficiency symptoms light on the plants.
Yellow spots appear on the surface of old leaves. This occurs because Mg transported to the young leaves. Old leaves eventually become weak and susceptible to disease, especially powdery mildew (powdery mildew).
Excess Mg does not cause extreme symptoms.
5. Calcium (Ca)
This element is the greatest role of cell growth. He is the component that amplifies, and set the penetrating power, as well as taking care of the cell wall. His role is very important in the growing point of the root. Even if there defiensi Ca, formation and impaired root growth and nutrient absorption resulting in stunted. Ca plays a role in the process of cell division and elongation, and regulate the distribution of photosynthesis.
Symptoms of calcium deficiency is the growing point is weak, deformed leaves, curl, small, and eventually fall out. Calcium causes high but not stocky plant. Because a direct effect on the growing point of the shortcomings of this element causes the flower production is hampered. Flowers fall also effect calcium deficiency.
Excess calcium did not affect much, it only affects the pH of the soil.
6. Sulfur or Sulfur (S)
In general, plants need in the formation of sulfur amino acids cystine, cysteine and methionine. Besides, it's also a part of biotin, thiamine, co-enzyme A and glutationin. An estimated 90% S in plants is found in the form of amino acids, which is one of its main functions is the building blocks of protein that is in the formation of disulfide bonds between peptide chains. Sulfur (S) is a part (constituent) from the metabolism of complex compounds. Sulfur also functions as an activator, and enzyme cofactors or regulatory role in the physiology of plants
The amount required by the plant S is equal to the amount of phosphorus (P). S deficiency inhibits protein synthesis, and it is this which can cause nitrogen deficiency chlorosis of plants such as. S deficiency further suppress the growth of shoots from the root growth. Symptoms of deficiency S is more apparent on young leaves with the colors of leaves that turn yellow as the mobility is very low in plants (Haneklaus and decrease in chlorophyll content drastically on the leaves is a typical symptom in plants that experienced deficient S. Deficient S causes the inhibition of protein synthesis were correlated with the accumulation N and dissolved organic nitrates.
Micro elements are elements that plants need in small amounts. Although only absorbed in small amounts, but it is very important to the success of the processes in the plant. Without micro elements, Adenium flowers do not appear prima. Interest will be limp, etc. The micro elements are: boron, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum.
1. Boron (B)
Boron is closely linked with the process of formation, division and differentiation and division of cells. This is related to its role in synthetic RNA, the basic material forming cells. Boron is transported from the roots to penetrate the plant through xylem vessels. Boron in the soil available in limited quantities and easily leached. Boron deficiency is most often found in adenium. Characteristics like leaves variegeta.
The leaves are darker than normal leaves, thick and wrinkled.
Ends of the leaves yellow and necrotic.
2. Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential function activator and bring some enzymes. He was also instrumental help smooth the process of photosynthesis. Forming chlorophyll, and plays a role in reproductive function is.
Disadvantages Copper (Cu)
Bluish-green leaves, leaf buds furl and grow small, stunted growth rate.
Excess Copper (Cu)
Plants grow stunted, limited branching, root formation is inhibited, root thickened and dark.
3. Zinc or Zinc (Zn)
Almost similar to Mn and Mg, sting role in enzyme activator, chlorophyll formation and helps the process of photosynthesis. Deficiency usually occurs in the media who have long been used.
Disadvantages Zinc (Zn)
Slow growth, the distance between the short book, leaves dwarf, wrinkled, or roll to one side and then followed with a loss. The fruit will turn yellow, open, and finally fall. Fruit will be weak so that the fruit should bend straight.
Excess Zinc (Zn)
Excess zinc showed no real impact.
4. Iron or Ferro (Fe)
Iron plays a role in the formation of the protein, as a catalyst for the formation of chlorophyll. Iron acts as an electron carrier in the process of photosynthesis and respiration, as well as activator of some enzymes. This element is not easy to move when there is a shortage so it is difficult to repair. Fe is most often contradictory or antagonistic with other micro elements. To reduce the effect, it is often wrapped with Chelate Fe (chelate) as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid). EDTA is an organic component that is stabilizing the metal ion. The presence of Fe EDTA then antagonist properties at high pH is reduced considerably. In the market encountered with Fe-EDTA brand.
Iron deficiency is indicated by symptoms of chlorosis and leaf yellowing or nekrosa. Young leaves appear white due to lack of chlorophyll. Additionally occurs because of damage to the roots. If adenium removed from the pot will be visible pieces of dead roots.
Provision of fertilizer with high Fe content causes necrosis characterized by the appearance of black spots on the leaves.
5. Molybdenum (Mo)
Mo serves as an electron carrier to convert nitrates into enzymes. This element also plays a role in nitrogen fixation.
Indicated by the appearance of chlorosis in older leaves, then spread to the young leaves
Excess do not show obvious symptoms at adenium.
6. Manganese (Mn)
Manganese is a micro elements that plants need in an amount not too much. Manganese is important in the synthesis of chlorophyll in addition it acts as a coenzyme, as an activator of several enzymes of respiration, in the reaction of nitrogen metabolism and photosynthesis. Manganese is also required to activate nitrate reductase that are experiencing a shortage of manganese plants require a source of N in the form of NH4 +. The role of manganese in photosynthesis related to the release of electrons from the water in the solution into hydrogen and oxygen.
Nutrient function Manganese (Mn) for the plant are:
a. Needed by plants for the formation of protein and vitamins, especially vitamin C
b. Instrumental in maintaining the condition of the green leaves on the old leaf
c. Feroksidase acts as an enzyme activator and as various enzymes
d. Serving as an important component for the smooth process of assimilation
Mn is needed in culture cotyledons of lettuce to spur growth in the number of shoots produced. Mn in high levels can substitute Mo in the culture of tomato roots. Mn can replace Mg in a certain enzyme systems as evidenced by Hewith in 1948.
Nutrient deficiency, or in other words a shortage of nutrients, can cause abnormal plant growth which could be caused by a deficiency of one or more nutrients, the disorder can be a specific visual symptoms.
Mn is a constituent of ribosomes and also enable the polymerase, protein synthesis, carbohydrate. Act as an activator for a major enzyme in the Krebs cycle, are needed to function in a normal photosynthetic chloroplasts, no indication is needed in the synthesis of chlorophyll. Deficiency elements Mn, among others: the broad-leaved plant, interveinal chlorosis on young leaves like kekahatan Fe but more spread to the older leaves, the cereal patches of color grayish to brownish in color and stripes in the middle and the base The young leaves, split seed on lupine plants.
Identification Symptoms of manganese deficiency is relative, often a nutrient deficiency in conjunction with an excess of other nutrients. On the field is not easy to distinguish the symptoms of deficiency. Not infrequently pests and diseases resembling a micro-nutrient deficiency symptoms. Symptoms can occur due to various reasons.
Symptoms of manganese deficiency showed necrotic spots on the leaves. Mobility of manganese is complex and depends on the species and age of the plant so that early symptoms can be seen on young leaves or older leaves .. manganese deficiency is characterized by yellowing of the leaves between the bones leaves. While the bone itself leaves remain green.
7. Chlorine (Cl)
Involved in osmosis (movement of water or solutes in cells), the ion balance necessary for plants to take up mineral elements and in photosynthesis.
Can cause symptoms that are less normal leaf growth in plants, especially vegetables, leaves appear less healthy and copper-colored. Sometimes the growth of tomato plants, wheat and cotton showed the symptoms as above.
8. Sodium (Na)
Involved in osmotic (water movement) and ionic balance in plants. One of the negative effects of excess Na is that it can reduce the availability K.
The leaves can be green tenaman old and thin. Plants quickly wither.
9. Cobalt (Co)
Cobalt is much higher for nitrogen fixation than ammonium nutrition. Levels of nitrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of deficiency.
Reduce the formation of hemoglobin and nitrogen fixation
10. Silicone (Si)
Si can improve results through increased efficiency of photosynthesis and induces resistance to pests and diseases found as a component of the cell wall. Plants with supply of soluble silicon produce stronger plants, increase the heat and drought of plants, tolerance silicon can be stored by plants at the site of infection by fungus to combat the penetration of the cell wall by fungal attack.
Can result in plants susceptible to disease.
11. Nickel (Ni)
Required for the enzyme urease to decompose urea in liberating nitrogen into a form that can be used for crops. Nickel is required for iron absorption. Nickel seeds need to germinate. Plants grown without additional nickel will gradually reach the level of shortages as they mature and begin reproductive growth
Nickel deficiency of elements in plants will lead to a failure to produce viable seed.
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