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Complete Guide On How To Grow Cabbage A Right For Maximum results

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one kind of plant vegetables and derived from subtropical areas that have important economic significance, which includes species that produce vegetable leaves, buds, flowers, stems, sweet potatoes and oil seeds. It is also to animal feed, in addition to delicious and tasty to vegetables, it sprouts also have utility as medicinal plants, which is believed to cure diseases hyperaciditas. These vegetables contain nutritional value of high value and thus, is suitable consumed vegetables to improve public health. The content of nutrients contained in cabbage plants, among others carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and contains various kinds of vitamins including vitamin A, B1, B2, and vitamin C, so the vegetables are widely consumed by the public, (Chayono, 2001) ,
Complete Guide On How To Grow Cabbage A Right For Maximum results

According to the origin of cabbage plants were cultivated until today originated from the wild cabbage that grows along the coast of the Mediterranean, the United Kingdom, Denmark and north-west France, as well as the Glamorgan coast. Cabbage plants that exist today were selected from wild cabbage growing since 2000 years ago. And in the ninth century cabbage has spread throughout the world of agriculture, although cabbage has long been known by the people of Indonesia. Because these vegetables generally come from areas that had subtropical so for optimal growth and production required a very specific climate and way of planting a little difficult when in comparison with other vegetables, (Rukmana, 1994).

Spacing influence on the growth and yield of cabbage, especially during the formation of the crop, which is highly variable between oval, flattened, and conical. Thus a spacing shown to effectively utilize light and nutrients evenly spread (Rukmana, 1994).

Aspects of weed control on cabbage plants are considered inseparable package in the cultivation of cabbage plants overall. Weeds or plant pests are often a problem in cabbage as a competitor in the use of water, light and nutrients for staple crops. Weeds can also serve as a buffer or host for pests or diseases can even remove toxins that can adversely affect the growth and yield of cabbage (Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, 1993).

Low production due to plant cabbage plants business is less intensive and still traditional, ie, without the use of a spacing and frequency of weeding less precise. Therefore, to increase the production of cabbage necessary intensive cultivation of the plant spacing and weeding so that it can support the growth and yield of cabbage.

Botany Cabbage
Cabbage in the systematics of plants classified as follows:

Kindom: Planeta
Devisio: Spermatophyta
Subdivisio: Angyospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Papavorales
Family: Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)
Genus: Brassica
Species: Brassica oleraceae

Morphology Cabbage
Generally, the cabbage plants are annuals (anual) shaped shrubs. With the composition of major organs stem leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots, the plant's root system that can penetrate the relatively deep soil surface depth between 20-30 cm, (Rukmana, 1994).

In general, the cabbage plants have shorter stems and contains a lot of water (herbaceuos). The stems are green, thick and soft and strong enough. This plant has branched stems that are not so visible, covered with leaves on the stem surrounded se to the growing point, and there are short-stemmed leaf blade (Rukmana, 1994). Cabbage leaves are oval, oblong to wide and green. Leaves the outside covered with a layer of wax and lint. The bottom leaf growth not bend, can reach a length of about 30 cm, the young leaves next start bending the leaf cover is existing thereon. In the growth phase will be formed by the leaves of the crop (Pracaya, 20001). Sometimes because of the pressure of the pressure leaves easily formed inside the leaf without in Balance deployment resulted in the crop heads smashed. This situation can occur when the plant will bloom. Flower of this plant is a collection of the interest period amounted to 500 petals, flower cabbage is a perfect flower that has pistils and stamens (Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, 1993).

Terms Growing Cabbage
Cabbage commonly called cabbage requires appropriate environmental requirements in order to grow. But basically cabbage can grow and adapt to hot climates or in accordance with the varieties, particularly the suitability of the soil (land) site and a climate that supports similarities and salinity of soil also determine the growth and yield of cabbage, (Pracaya, 2001). In general, the cabbage can be grown on all soil types. However, growth would be ideal if planted in sandy clay soil that contains a lot of organic material.

In the life cycle of cabbage require sufficient water, but not excessive. Good soil for growing cabbage is loose soil, many containing humus with pH ranging between 6 - 7. The good soil fatherly type of cabbage that is sandy loam, (Rukmana, 1994).

Climatic conditions suitable for growing cabbage is an area that is relatively humid and cold. Moisture is needed cabbage is 15 ° C - 20 ° C as well as getting enough sunlight, (Rukmana, 1994). Japanese study concluded that the optimum temperature for growing cabbage is 15 ° C - 20 ° C. But in Indonesia differences in each climatic factors, temperature, day length, humidity and rainfall hujang radiation evident on the environment lowland and highland (Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, 1993). Differences in the characteristics of the climate elements cause some cabbage varieties grow well in the highlands and some other varieties grown in lowland ie 0 - 200m above sea level (asl).

Planting distance
Aspects of the use of spacing of the implications of the results of broad unity, but also to the average size of cabbage produced a decisive additional value commodities. Spacing plants cultivated regularly in order to obtain uniform growing space, and the maintenance is easier and easier to carry out weeding spacing of influence on plant growth and crop formation, spacing adapted to the varieties grown. spacing is too tight increases the humidity around the plant, this state can spur the growth and development of the pests, but it also influenced the acceptance of sunlight at each plant so that it can affect the growth and yield of cabbage. (Suprapto, 1990). Spacing greatly influenced the decision-nutrient that is the competition between the plants, but it also affects the use of elements of the climate and the efficiency of land use and influenced the formation of the crop in cabbage plants.

Irregular spacing can cause unproductive plants, also affect the reception of nutrients and light. While the regular spacing and good will make allowances for the plants to receive nutrients and sunlight evenly. (Cahyono, 2001).

Spacing can be used to plant cabbage, among others: the spacing of 60x40 cm, yielding 10 tonnes / ha, a spacing of 60 x 60 cm, yielding 30 tonnes / ha and 60 x 50 cm, yielding 20 tonnes / ha.

Frequency Weeding Weeds
Aspects of weeds in crops is inseparable package, so in the cultivation of the crop as a whole cabbage. Weeds or plant pests are often a problem in cabbage, because it is a competitor in the use of water, light and nutrients for staple crops. Weeds can also act as a buffer or host for pests and diseases can even remove toxins that can adversely affect the growth of staple crops. (Everaarts, 1981). Effective weed control efforts on cabbage has long been known that the system of weeding by hand. Weeding is done to clean seedbed or nursery, grass or other wild plants that can interfere with the growth and yield of cabbage, so the plants can grow without competition from the invasive plant. During the time of planting is done twice weeding along with the activities of tilling the soil.
Rivalry between weeds and crops are inter-specific competition due to occur between different species of plants, while the rivalry that occurs between the same plant species are inter-specific competition. (Sukman, 2002). Competition is defined as the struggle of two or more organisms to compete for the same object. Both weeds and crops have the same basic needs for normal growth and development. Rivalry occurs when the growth support element is not available in sufficient quantities for both.

The ability of plants to compete with weeds is determined by weed species, weed density, the time and duration of the competition, how the cultivation of varieties grown, and soil fertility. Species differences will determine the ability to compete on because of the difference of photosynthesis, rooting conditions and circumstances morphology. Weeds that emerge or germinated first or simultaneously with plants managed, resulting in greatly to the growth and yield of cabbage. (Rukmana, 1994).

Cabbage Cultivation guide

Management of land and water

  • Remove weeds and plant debris to choke the soil-borne disease like root swelling, soft rot, seedling felling, and others. by way of revoked and collected and then burned or can make compost.
  • Do not plant cabbage plants with constantly and do crop rotation.
  • Wear an organic fertilizer and rice husk, especially in the dry season to increase the efficiency of water use, if any cocopeat with an abundant amount can later be used, for more details you can read the benefits of cocopeat.
Land preparation
  • Place dug and plowed as deep as 20-30 cm
  • Give dolomite or agricultural lime approximately 2 tonnes / ha when low pH or acid.
Nursery phase.
  • Media seedbed consists of a mixture of soil and manure (compost) finely with a ratio of 1: 1.
  • Seeds are soaked in warm water for 0, 5 - hours then aerated.
  • Spread the seeds evenly and regularly then covered in banana leaves along 3-4 days
  • Work on watering every day with a flush.
  • Seedbed in open each morning until 00 and 10. The evening starts at 15. 00
  • Observe the cabbage seedlings are attacked by the disease fluffy flour (Peronospora parasitica) or moth on leaves first, plucked and discarded affected leaves.
Spacing rare 70 X 50 cm or spacing of the meeting of 60 X 50 cm.

Seedling Cabbage
Seed that is in use must come from seeds that clear quality and the manufacturer so as to avoid problems at the end of the cultivation and the results are satisfactory.

Basic fertilization
  • Base fertilizer is given one day before planting time with a dose of 250 kg / ha TSP, 50 kg / ha of urea, 175 kg / Ha Za and 100 kg / ha KCL, Manure dried 6 Ton / Ha and agricultural lime 2 Ton / Ha.
  • Basic fertilizer combined with equally then given to the planting hole that has been given manure, then covered again with soil.
How to Grow Cabbage
  • Make the planting hole with the appropriate drill spacing of
  • Determine the fresh and healthy seeds
  • Planting seedlings in the planting hole
  • If the seeds sown on the tube immediately planted banana leaf seedling media simultaneously.
  • When sowing seeds in a plastic poly bag, then remove the seeds from the newly planted polibag
  • When sowing seeds in the seedbed take land along approximately 2-3 cm from the stem 5 cm (rotation system)
  • After planting, soak the seeds in water until wet
  • Cabbage can be intercropped with tomato through planting method: 2 rows of cabbage rows of tomatoes. tomatoes are planted 3 or 4 weeks before when the cabbage.
Pre-establishment phase of the crop (0-49 days)
  • Watering can be done in the morning or late afternoon supplementary fertilization can be done when the plants are 28 days old, the dose is 50 kg / ha of urea 100 kg / ha and pic 175 kg / ha za
  • Weeding (loose right and landfill) is performed at 2 and 4 weeks
  • Prune the shoots that flower formation can be optimized in this phase there is usually a pest that attacks them are caterpillars ground (Agrotis ipsilon hufn.), Moth (Plutella xylostella l.), Caterpillar crop cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis zell.), And striped caterpillar crop (hellula undalis f.).
  • Observe every week once the pests began 13 days old cabbage. The highest population took place at the beginning of the dry season, Draw your young plants that die from diseases plant pests (Rhizoctonia solani kuhn.) And embroideries with healthy new plants.
Crop establishment phase (50-90 days).
A week before the harvest, weeding done manually by hand. Observe with more intensive pests that caused major damage in this phase, namely; cabbage moth (p. xylostella) and cabbage caterpillar crop (c. binotalis). For pest attack while welcoming the harvest does not need to be controlled with chemicals.

Cabbage Crop Pests
Moth (CP.xylostella)
Caterpillars eat the leaves of the bottom leaves so stay epidemic upper part only. Small caterpillars approximately 5 mm green.

Control can be done by taking a caterpillar found in cabbage, then squeezed to death. Chemical control is possible when found 5 tail caterpillar / 10 plants sample.

Grayak caterpillar (S.litura)
Cabbage armyworm also attacked. Together with the moth control.

Crop cabbage caterpillars (C. binotalis).
Often attack the growing point of a small green caterpillars greater than moth, when disturbed rather lazy to move. Unlike the caterpillar leaves the eggs laid spreads, caterpillar crop of cabbage lay their eggs in one group. Denganulat same control leaves.

Silkworm Land (Agro Ipsilon)
Black caterpillar. Sign of damage is truncated cabbage plants are still small. Control can be done by exposing the soil carefully around the plant are cut off. If the attack a lot, it can be used as akatoshiro Biological Insecticide mixed with bran, to find out more about akatoshiro please read The benefits of natural insecticides Akatoshiro.

Cabbage Plant Disease
Swollen roots
  • During the day, the plant looks wilted like shortage of water, but at night or early morning leaves look fresh again.
  • Plants stunted and unable to form a flower can even die.
  • Root swelling and dark patches.
  • Treating the seed as described in the preparation of the seed,
  • Sow the seeds in a place that is free of disease outbreaks;
  • Doing liming to increase the pH;
  • Pull plants were diseased;
  • Crop rotation with species that are not as family.
Watery soft rot
  • Stunted growth, rot and die;
  • When attacking the stem, the leaves will turn yellow, wither and fall off;
  • When attacks the leaves, then the leaves will rot and slimy;
  • Other symptoms are tassel white fungus and eventually black.
  • Use healthy seed and crop rotation with crops that are not similar.
  • Eradication with Fungicides, I recommend the use of natural fungicide, one bio fungicides Trichoderma sp, for more details please read the benefits trichoderma sp.
Fall Sprouts (Damping off)
  • Patches of wetness at the base of the stem;
  • Stem rot, causing the rod fell down and easily broken;
  • Attacking the plants in the nursery, but can also attack plants in the field.

Control: seed treatment before planting and crop rotation with species of plants other than cabbage. control can be performed using bio fungicides.

Harvest and post-harvest At the age of 81- 105 days
  • Cabbage can be harvested already. Cabbage ready for harvest can be determined through the following signs:
  • The outer edge of the crop leaves at the top.
  • Crop curved outward and slightly colored purple.
  • And the crop has been solid in the hand.
When to harvest, to include two strands of green leaves that make crop protection Keep cabbage no bruises or cuts Consider whether there is a soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) and black rot (Xanthomonas camprestris). If there is, immediately dispose of the leaves of cabbage infected stretcher. Cabbage harvested gathered in the shade and not exposed to direct sunlight so that the respiration rate decreases. The goal is to get the cabbage with the quality and quantity.

Make a collection with caution and should not be piled and tossed. Sort or separate the cabbage crop is good and of poor quality or damaged. Store cabbage at a temperature of 32-35 degrees F and humidity 92-95%. Cabbage can be stored 4-6 months (cabbage high water content) and 12 months (cabbage low water content) with a weight loss of 10%.

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Thus I can say about Complete Guide On How To Grow Cabbage A Right For maximum results, may be useful for the readers, and do not forget to share with each other, and survivors tried to plant cabbage, good luck with this guide.

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