A BRIEF HISTORY
Catfish is a species of freshwater fish consumption, long-bodied white with silver-colored backs bluish. Catfish known as commodity bright prospect, because it has a high selling price. This is why catfish attention and demand by employers to cultivate catfish. This fish is quite responsive to supplemental feeding. At catfish culture, within six months of catfish can reach a length of 35-40 cm. As Pangasidae family, these fish do not require water flowing to "raise" the body. In waters do not flow with low oxygen content had already qualified for raising these fish.
Long-bodied catfish to the size of the local fresh fish, such as silver white, bluish backs. Catfish relatively small head, mouth situated at the tip of the head a little at the bottom (a hallmark of class catfish). In the corner of his mouth there are two pairs of short whiskers that serves as a feeler.
Catfish classification is as follows:
Species: Pangasius pangasius Ham. Buch.
Catfish has an elongated body with a white silvery bluish backs. Body length can reach 120 cm, a size large enough for the size of the domestic freshwater fish. Catfish relatively small head with a mouth situated at the tip of the head a little in the bottom it is the characteristic class of catfish. at the corner of his mouth there are two pairs of short whiskers that serves as a feeler.
Dorsal fin has a radius which turns into a hard serrated catfish and large on the back. Meanwhile, the radius of the soft dorsal fin there are six or seven. At the back there are small fatty fin all. The forked tail fin shape and a symmetrical shape. Catfish do not have scales. Anus fin length, consisting of 30-33 soft radii, while the belly fin has six fingers hard turn into a weapon in natural conditions in the weapon is useful to keep it from predators.
Catfish for health benefits
Catfish for health benefits characterized by the fat content is lower than other types of fish, especially two essential fatty acids DHA is approximately 4.74% and the EPA is approximately 0.31%. Both types of omega-3 fatty acids are usually produced from species of fish that live in cold water fish like salmon, tuna, and sardines. The total fat content in meat catfish is of 2.55% to 3.42%, where the unsaturated fatty acids is above 50%. Folic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is most abundant in the flesh of catfish that is equal to 8.43%.
The content of catfish
Based on the results of the research, the nutrient content in catfish in the form of unsaturated fat (USFA by 50%) is very good to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease. Unsaturated fats are also useful for lowering the amount of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood contained so as to prevent and reduce coronary heart disease.
If in view of the low levels of cholesterol contained in meat catfish (21-39 mg / 100 g), then the benefits of catfish is very good for those of you who are on a diet program because it can reduce the daily intake of cholesterol in your diet.
Biological properties of catfish
Catfish are nocturnal (activities carried out at night) as well as other generally catfish. Additionally, catfish like to hide in the clefts of the riverside habitat for life. What distinguishes catfish with catfish in general: the nature of catfish are omnivorous or group of fish-eating everything. In nature, fish meal include other small fish, worms, detritus, insects, seeds. Small shrimps, and mollusks.
Catfish including basic fish, it can be seen from the shape of his mouth slightly down it. Life habitat in rivers and estuaries spread in Indonesia, India, and Myanmar. Catfish meat is very tasty and delicious so well-known and highly favored by the people. If the nature of fish congregate at the edges of the big river at the end of the rainy season or about April to May. Sener tool used is a kind of mesh in the stretcher with a pair of bamboo. Its operating by pushing the net toward the front. The time of his arrest before dawn because at that time the children of catfish usually swim in groups and occasionally come to the surface to breathe oxygen from the air directly.
No close relatives catfish Indonesia generally have characteristics Pangasidae family in general, which is slightly flattened body shape, not scaly or smooth scales once. A small mouth with 2-4 pairs of antennae feelers. There are thorns as a weapon on the dorsal fin and the fins chest. Anus fin length starting from the back of the rectum up to the base of the tail fin. It is said that relatives Patin in Indonesia there are quite a lot, including Pangasius polyuranodo (fish juaro), Pangasius macronema (fish rios, fish riu, fish presumptuous), Pangasius micronemus (Wakal, riuscaring), Pangasius nasutus (pedado), Pangasius nieuwenhuisii (mace ). Below is a summary description of the relatives of catfish as follows:
This fish is also known as fish juaro. Pearly white body with a blackish back. High body shape with dorsal fin has seven soft fingers and two fingers hard one between becoming a very powerful weapon that is very strong. Small fatty fin on his back once, while the symmetrical shape of the tail fin. Anus fin long and has 35-40 soft finger-jar. Pelvic fin has six fingers soft, while the pectoral fin has 12-13 soft radii and a radius of powerful hardware that also serves as a shaft.
Near the nostrils are tentacle feeler of the upper jaw which originate in the corners of the mouth and ends up at the base of the pectoral fins. Barbels on the lower jaw touch short. The body length of up to 50 cm, nose in the rivers. Spread in Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Thailand.
These fish have antennae that are longer than the head. Veromine gear separated, 37-45 comb filter are thin on the first gill arch. The lines at the hands of the body and the belly clearly separated at the beginning of the pectoral fins. This fish deployment includes Java, Borneo, and Indochina.
This fish has a separate veromine teeth or met in one point, his eyes very large (approximately one-quarter the length of the head), hexagon-shaped snout, lower jaw lobe elongated rather than rounded, bony arm at the base of the pectoral fins are very short. Tentacle extending to the periphery of the upper jaw behind the eye or beyond it. There are 13-16 comb filter on the first gill arch. This fish is found in the Sunda Islands and Thailand.
This fish snout sharp pointy shape and very striking. Veromine wide set of teeth three times its length. His eyes are very small (six times shorter than the length of the head) and is located above the corners of the mouth. The number of fingers anal fins are relatively few. When the mouth is closed, the teeth of the upper jaw visible all. The spread of these fish in Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia.
Veromine and palatine teeth or in the wide field. A bony protrusion at the base of the pectoral fin arm extends up to two-thirds or three-quarters of the distance from the tip of the pectoral fins. Tapered snout. The spread of these fish in east borneo.
Enlargement catfish in a special pond for catfish enlargement enlargement usually is done after the fish at first maintained in the pond. But there are also people who directly maintain it in an enlargement without having to go through the pond first.
maintenance in the pond is done for catfish that size is still very small. seed catfish sold in the market there are still small so it should be maintained in the nursery in advance but when the seed size is already size is large enough, the nursery is not in need again means that in purchasing seeds are directly kept in an enlargement.
Catfish do not always choose the particular type of pool. This fish can be maintained and can still grow well in various types of pools. This type of pool that can be used for catfish enlargement, namely:
- Swimming Irrigation.
- Swimming rainfed.
- Non Tidal marsh pond.
- Swimming tarp.
As the name implies, an irrigation obtain water from irrigation networks. the use of irrigation pond for catfish enlargement is the recommended because the water in the pool is available all the time and far from the concerns the possibility of water shortages.
In the manufacture of an extensive irrigation pond determination more freely so that the pool can be made to be larger. Before it was decided to build a pool of soil types should also be in the know because this type of soil will directly affect the level of fertility of pool water.
Good soil types in addition to being a source of nutrients also determine the physical and chemical properties of water pool. In addition soil texture should also be considered for the level of seepage. Therefore, the pool is made on the textured clay soil because it is waterproof (to have a relatively small level of seepage).
Sources of water coming into the pond should also be in the know. Source of water for irrigation is groundwater that flows on the lower ground flow through the river. Furthermore, water is piped away from the river through irrigation streams. in the water travels through the various types of soil. if through soil containing lime water is alkaline (base). Instead of water through the swamp to be acidic.
Water passing through the area of agriculture and settlement contains a lot of organic matter and fertility. while water through industrial and mining areas usually contain substances pollution therefore these factors must be taken into consideration.
This is a rain-fed swimming pool that only gets water from the rain. Swimming rainfed made when all around us is not available source of irrigation water or groundwater sources. So the source of water to fill the pool water comes from rain water entirely. because only rely on rain water, the precipitation will determine the amount or volume or pool water.
Catfish expect the pool to a certain depth (1 - 1.5 m), therefore when using rain-fed pond for catfish enlargement it should make sure first that there is enough water to measure the depth of the pond throughout the maintenance period. That is why the development of rain-fed pond can not be done in any place.
The location used to be researched carefully through precipitation, evaporation of soil texture, and construction of the pool area has a rainfall of over 1,500 mm per year can be used to build rainfed for enlargement catfish more safe longer periods of wet months in the area reaches 7-9 months. while the evaporation of water per day is about 5 mm. the size of rain-fed pond can not be for an irrigation but must be smaller than that.
Non Tidal Swamp pool
Although unpopular, enlargement catfish in swamps, especially in non-tidal marsh has been on trial in southern Sumatra inim kartamulia estuary catfish growth results are quite good, especially on a tidal marsh pond that has long built.
Generally bog pond is highly acidic (low pH less than 4). The nature of the soil and the pool water was not good enough acid to enlargement catfish. But this can be overcome by engineering reclamation (leaching). how the swamp pond water flowed to speed up the process of releasing new material and subsequent acid in the waste waters to more broadly.
Other efforts to raise the pH of the non-tidal marsh pond is with calcification. usually chalk effect would be very helpful if the first pond in reclaimed before swimming in limestone. Calcification is done on the bottom of the pond and further to maintain the stability of the water may be added lime with a lower dose.
Formerly fish farmers know only ground pools, swimming ponds and fish farming cages as a container. Along with the development of agricultural technology and the availability of materials, many farmers who improvise implement pilot fish in the pond maintenance alternatives. One of the more trendy is a pool tarp. Fish belonging to this Pangasidae not require running water for self-aggrandizement. Even catfish are able to grow normally in the low oxygen waters.
But keep in mind, especially at the seed stage (larvae) is very sensitive to weather changes. Many reported the occurrence of mass mortality due to changes in water temperature and the air suddenly. This condition occurs when the weather anomaly takes place, such as long dry or rainy season different from the usual. But behind it there is one thing that benefit from this catfish. This fish is very tolerant of water pH.
Here is a step - Steps That Must do in Aquaculture Catfish
When preparing a pool that will be made for media cultivation, as already explained above the pool must be dried prior to the bottom of the pool cracked before use sprinkle compost on the surface of the pond in order to make seed phytoplankton later. After the manure in composting also sprinkle sprinkle lime and fertilizer urea fertilizers which aims to stabilize the acidity of water. Construction of the pool can be adjusted to the needs of eg 5 M x 10 M with a depth of 2-3 M. if we do not have enough land that we can make smaller fishponds which suggest that catfish into the pond for a fish like into the water.
Water filling can be done after all of the above conditions are met. fill the pond with water about 50-100 CM, with the aim to take into easily catfish undergo breathe oxygen activity if the water is too deep, the fish would be difficult to do so. Then let the pond with water such that the position of up to 2 weeks old until the water is greenish. because in the pond, there are many natural foods when water is greenish.
At the time of seeding there are things that need to be noticed. Before the seeds scatter the fish in the pond thing we do is:
- Prepare Ember.
- Put water we draw from the pool of candidates cultivation.
- Put seed catfish in the bucket for about 30 minutes in order to make adjustments to the habitat of fish later so as not to stress and lead to death.
- After That input into the pond with fish seed stocking density of 5 mice / 1 M square. that experienced rapid growth rate.
Catfish classified voracious fish eat no matter how much we love to eat then be discharged but such measures are not effective. enough with feeding frequency during the morning and evening to the morning levels at 06.00 pm during the day at 13:00 pm and 20:00 pm Night at the amount of 30% mornings, 30% during the day, 40% evenings. with a nutrient content of 25% protein, 25% carbohydrate, 35% fat. feed can be given in the form of additional feed fish pellets and artificial feed.
When the 40-day-old fish we have to make the selection / sorting the fish sorter tool. we can. purchased from the store fish farming equipment. with the aim to create as large fish and in same time period.
Harvest catfish can be done after 5 months of cultivation. to get the fish in accordance with the market we can adjust the length of cultivation period. and harvests are suggested for the removal of all fish in the pond and transferred into a pool tarp to avoid stress and death.
Also read about: the cultivation of eels
Similarly, a brief explanation of Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper, hopefully what is presented can be useful to readers. And good luck for the cultivation of catfish.