Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding

Seed is a plant material that is essential to the process of planting. Good quality seeds will determine the success of the planting. Quality seeds and the genetic quality of their consisting of quality based on morphology. Quality good seed in the field is supported by the quality of the resulting seedlings from the nursery, and the successful establishment of seedlings in the nursery greatly influenced from the nursery management. Good quality seeds will determine the growth of the plant. Aside from the quality itself of selecting seeds that will be planted also affect the uniformity of growth in the planting area. Another factor that affects the growth of the seed itself among other ways of planting itself.
Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding
The nursery is a place that used to sow the seeds of a plant species for the treatment and care over a certain period, that will produce seed that is of good quality, which meets the requirements of the age, size and growth are quite good and ready to be planted in the field, one example in papaya cultivation, cultivation of coffee plants, or plants in plants in pots, either planting chillies and grow tomatoes. The resulting seedlings can be the seeds in a container, round, scraped or stump. To provide a common understanding concerns in relation to the activities of the nursery / nursery, then the below given some meaning or definition involves some of the terms used in the nursery:
  • Procurement of seeds is an activity which includes the preparation of facilities, infrastructure, collecting quality seeds either seeds or seedlings seedlings of natural or other techniques intended as a provider of materials (seeds), especially in planting activities, enrichment (enrichment planting), rehabilitation of forests and other uses.
  • The nursery is an area whose location remains the maintenance of seedlings and built with equipment that is neat and orderly that related to reforestation areas of vacant land and damaged or other designation.
  • Seed is a seedling plants to be cultivated.
  • Plot sow is a seedbed containing soil media, in order to breed seeds.
  • Weaning beds are beds where its placed polybags containing seeds originating from sowing beds and puppies that come from nurseries in order to prepare for the size and quality of seeds sufficient for enrichment, rehabilitation or other designation.
  • Seedling media is media in the form of soil, peat, rice husk which is prepared in a way that allows for seed, the seeds can grow well.
  • Seed is a seed that would come from the seed stands or parent trees that have not been subjected to special treatment or unsorted.
  • Is a vegetative breeding nurseries that use cuttings produced plant material from the garden pruning.
Nursery function
Nursery or nursery serves to provide quality seeds in sufficient quantity, in accordance with the planned needs, administration time is right and the seeds can adapt to the site or to the local conditions.

Planning Nursery
Planning an early stage of any process of implementation of the activities. In the nursery activities, some of the considerations that are used in planning the nursery activities include the determination of the type of nursery, nursery location, material requirements, equipment requirements and labor and time required procedures.

Type Nursery
In general nurseries are grouped into two, namely the temporary nursery and nursery remained.
While nursery (Flying Nursery)
Nursery while usually a small nursery, and placed near the site to be planted. Seedbed of this type usually used does not exceed a period of 5 years.

The advantage of the nursery while among others:
  • Environmental conditions closer to the actual situation.
  • Transportation costs low seed.
  • Soil fertility does not matter because the seedbed always on the move after the land becomes poor.
  • Little labor is so easy to obtain.
While the lack of nursery while namely:
  • Costs fall nursery expensive because the spread of work with little results.
  • Enhanced skills of workers is difficult, due to frequently changing personnel.
  • Often fail due to lack of trained manpower.
  • Location seedbed that emanated complicate supervision.
Keep nursery
These nurseries are usually large (wide) and location settled in one place, with the aim to serve the growing areas are extensive.

Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding
The advantage of the nursery remains is:
  • Soil fertility can be maintained by fertilizing
  • Can be done mechanically if desired 3 Monitoring and maintenance more efficient, with a permanent staff and elected.
  • Planning work will be more regular.
  • Productivity seedlings / seeds high seed quality is better and more uniform growth.
As for the shortage of nursery equipment are:
  • Environmental conditions do not always approach the real situation.
  • Transport costs are more expensive than the type of temporary nursery.
  • Costs and greater investment than temporary nursery.
Location Nursery
Determining the location of the nursery must be preceded by field observations. To select the location of a good seedbed seedbed, some requirements that need to be considered are:

Technical Aspects Nurseries
Nursery layout
Nursery sites wherever possible cultivated in the middle of the planting area or are in close proximity premises growing areas. Location or area of ​​the seedbed should be on open land and gets enough sunlight / direct, easily accessible at all times and is protected from strong winds blowing.

Road transport
Location seedbed should be accessible by road transport or means of transport, so as to facilitate the transport and surveillance activities.

Nursery Size
The area of ​​the nursery depends on:
  • Plan the number of seedlings to be produced / year
  • Whether planting bare root system (bare root) or container system that requires space / place wider.
  • The length of seedling / seed kept in the nursery until the desired size is obtained.
Physical Aspects
Water
The existence of water sources in sufficient quantities, especially in determining success / absence of the nursery to be built. In general, water resources in forest areas such as rivers, streams, soil and rainwater.

Growing Media
Is one component soil where the plants grow. Plants will thrive when fertile growing medium and languish when the growing medium is not fertile.
The conditions require the seedlings growing medium as follows:
  • Porosity and good drainage
  • Free of rocks and gravel
  • pH 5-7
  • Not a clay
  • Contains a lot of nutrients (in terms of the media used infertile, can be given as a fertilizer replacement).
Topography / Slope
Location seedlings cultivated in areas that are relatively flat. The more severe topography, it will be increasingly difficult to progress the preparation of the field and also getting a lot of effort and costs required. Slope can be considered as a nursery area of ​​not more than 10%.

Aspects of Labor
Labor availability in sufficient quantity and quality yag adequate become the decisive factor for the success of the nursery. Labor requirements on cultivated seedbed can be met from surrounding communities or who are close to the nursery.
Labor requirements for each nursery depends on the volume of work there. The volume of work in the nursery activities are generally different at each stage of the exercise, because it is labor requirements are also different.

Materials / Material
Materials needed for nursery activities consist of seeds, sand, soil or growing media forms another (peat, husks, etc.), plastic bags (containers) fertilizers, fungicides and pesticides.

Seed
Two important factors that need attention in the provision of quality and quantity of seed is a seed. Provision of good quality seed and in sufficient quantities and on time largely determines the success of the nursery. Often there is a shortage of seed is not due to a lack of quantity / weight of seeds available, but because of poor seed quality. This can happen for a region that does not have the seed stocks of certain species that must be brought in from outside. To ensure the quality of the seeds in accordance with those contained in the label, it is necessary to test.

Media Growing From Sand and soil media (other types of growing medium)
Basically soil or other growing medium to medium sapling been good, free rocks, gravel and other objects, so it does not interfere with the growth of the seeds were germinated and seedling growth sapling results. Hard objects in question include gravel, or stone.

Sand for germination medium cultivated sterile as possible among others by drying in a full sun for 2-3 days or flushing hot water or fried in order to avoid the possibility of fungus. In an effort to spur the growth of seedling sapling result, lately a lot done with a fertilizer that is mixed with soil which has been selected for weaning medium. This work was done by mixing fertilizer and soil until uniform (stirred) after it is loaded into a plastic bag that had been prepared. Comparison of manure with the soil that is 1: 2, while when using TSP fertilizer normally used dosage 4-5 grams per plastic bag. For certain types of plants such as meranti and pine plant weaning media such as land and fertilizers are also mixed with mycorrhizal bacteria.

Equipment and Labor
Place Nursery, consisting of:
  • Workspace
  • Data space
  • Rest room
  • Medical room
  • Warehouse.
Guard house
Guard house provided for residential and warehouse workers (foreman nursery). It is very important that the nursery is always awake and able to take action if there are problems in the nursery, among other issues seedbed disturbance by pests and diseases that are abrupt.

Watering Means
Irrigation facilities in the nursery, among others in the form of trench / channel and the water tank is sufficient. In order not to depend on rain water, nurseries should be equipped with equipment such as pipelines for water.
For watering seedlings with less than 50,000 seedlings are usually performed by hand, using the tool flush. Moderate to nursery with the production of seeds / seedlings of 50,000 seedlings will be more advantageous to use a pump motor with automatic watering. In the modern nursery watering is done by "sprinkle irrigation" in this way the water is sprayed through a sprayer that can be played like a fountain.

Road Transport and Roads Inspection
Road transport need to be made to transport materials and equipment needed in the nursery including for transporting seedlings at the time will be planted in the field. The width of road transport is usually not less than 2.5 meters wide inspection road was between 0.75 to 1.00 meters.

Nursery fencing
Nursery that require fencing normally under these conditions:
  • Often there are strong winds
  • The disruption of livestock
  • Disturbance boar / deer.
Shade
Shade is made with the intention to avoid seedling damage from light and excessive temperatures and damage caused by rain water tempaaan. The aim is to get a good seedling growth by providing the appropriate light and temperature needs.

To provide shade on the seedlings thing that should be known in advance is the nature of the type of core seedling continuing need light. For seed germination and seedling growth whether it requires full light or need shade. In practice, the shade is needed both for species that need shade or unnecessary shade. Only for types that do not need shade or require full light, given shade of light, for example shade made from gauze plastic or reed / palm leaves as roof set not too tight so that sunlight can still get into the seedbed / tub, shade often open, unless there is heavy rain and the sun was so hot. The intensity of the shade is reduced gradually. Generally 8-10 weeks before the seedlings transferred to the field, shade completely eliminated. This meant that before the planting of seedlings in the field can adapt from the situation on the ground which is normally open.

Other means : (hoes, sickles, sprayer etc.).

Governance Implementation Nursery
Governance activities in the nursery needs to be planned carefully.
Planting in the ground is usually done at the beginning of the rainy season, so before then order seeds (seedlings) should be ready. Given the rainy season for each region different possibilities, it is the beginning of establishing nurseries also follow local circumstances.
The length of time holding each period nurseries, besides influenced by climate (growing season) local, is also affected by the type of crops to be planted, because each type of plant until ready for planting takes different.

Nursery Techniques
Engineering seedlings that can be done include:
Seed
  • Seeds should be collected from the parent tree straight trunk, branching height, titled dense, healthy and are old enough. If the seeds purchased from seed producers who have a certificate that clearly.
  • Seeds have been collected / purchased immediately transported to the nursery and selected to choose a good seed.
  • Good quality seeds have a high germination rate of 80% with high purity embodied in the form of seeds is not hollow, sinking when it entered the water, large and uniform seeds.
To obtain seeds that lead through breeding programs, can generally be classified into two, namely:
  • Short-term seed requirements : The seeds obtained through the selection and appointment of plus trees, stand-stands good, and the source provenance seed stands.
  • Long-term seed requirements : Attempts to obtain seeds of a truly superior, through a series of tree breeding activities to preparing seed-gardens.
Lap
  • Seedlings with the rotation system implemented if there is a need certain seeds for planting seedlings special or achievement of targets.
  • Target seedlings are preparing plants for planting, enrichment and rehabilitation.
  • Kind of seeds are planted from trees harvested species or species that have commercial advantages.
  • Seed material taken can be derived from the seeds, scraped, or cuttings.
  • Seeds that have been taken were taken to the nursery to be adjusted for the environment.
  • After the treated seeds in the nursery and are ready to plant, the seeds are taken can be brought to localized planting.
Scraped
  • Collecting conducted on natural seedlings around the mother plant with a maximum radius of 10 meters from the parent tree canopy projection.
  • Natural seedlings usually has a height of 15-30 cm in the number of leaves 2-5 pieces.
  • Should be done during the rainy season or the soil is still wet / damp.
  • Tillers revoked carefully done with the revocation of parallel straight trunk and arranged so that the roots are not severed.
  • Natural seedlings that have been collected should be immediately transported to the location of plots weaning.
  • Puppies that have been collected, organized, arranged in the direction in which the roots of the roots and leaves with a leaf.
Cuttings
Making the garden plot barbershop :
  • Size beds (1.5-2 meters) x 6 meters north-south direction and the distance between beds 0.6 meters and around the beds to be given holder made of boards with a height from ground level ± 15 cm.
  • Each plot to be given as a protective roof seedlings from sun and rain water directly. Made of a durable material such as sarlon, filled with a mixture of medium height ± 20 cm.
  • Media used to trim garden is a mixture of top soil, rice husk, peat in the ratio 6: 3: 1.
  • Comparison between the land for the purposes of inspection with extensive road embankment is 1: 3
  • The plant material should trim garden seeds - seeds vegetative or seed from seed originating from parent trees that are good phenotypes.
Manufacture of cuttings
  • Material cuttings taken from chicks that come from the garden pruning should be juvenille or younger and shoots autotrop not branch. For the first phase of each seed can produce ± 14 cuttings.
  • To improve the quality of seeds cuttings generated from the garden trim longer recommended for use as materials for pruning orchard. Selected seedlings that grow uniformly excellent functionality as well as the number of leaves.
  • Size tub with solid media cuttings and media (water rooting system) is 1 x 2 meters with a height of 0.6 m. In order to stabilize the temperature of media cuttings tub construction to be made with concrete walls as wide as ± 10 cm
  • Shade should be provided so that the intensity of light that enters the cuttings are not too high (optimum 50%). This shade can be used for transparent plastic white.
  • Spacing cuttings tub 5 x 5 cm.
Vegetative plant material (shoot tips) for the manufacture of shoot cuttings can be obtained from several sources:
  • Crop garden
  • Nursery (trimming rolling)
  • Natural seedlings
Plant tissue isolation method
  • Choosing and preparing the parent plant as a source of explants.
  • Setting up the culture media
  • Sterilization of explants.
  • Initiation of the culture or the culture establishment.
  • Multiplication or propagation propagation (propagated plant material such as buds or embryos).
  • Elongation bud induction and development of roots.
  • Acclimatization to the external environment (green house).
Criteria Ready Planting Seeds
Quality seed based Mansur (2010) consists of the genetic quality and quality based on morphology. Morphological quality can be judged based on:
  • High seeds, seedlings can be planted in the field if it has reached a height of 30-50 cm
  • Diameter seeds, for seeds with a high measure of 30-50 cm seedlings have reached a minimum diameter of 0.5 cm.
  • Robustness (ratio between the height and diameter of seedlings).
  • Straightness seedlings, in a plot of weaning often found the seeds that are not straight due to the skewed arrangement polybag
  • Bud dormancy, seed with dormant buds that have the ability to live in the field of higher when compared with the seed bud part sekulen
  • Has woody stems, seeds with woody stems that have the ability to live the high ground.
  • Presence or absence of roots that penetrate the polybags, if many growing outside polybags will cause death when the seedlings will be revoked.
  • The presence or absence of bacteria mycorrhiza, to ektomokoriza it is characterized by the presence of mycelia are white or yellow on the surface of media weaning if polybag opened
  • The presence or absence of pests.
Source :
  • Adinugraha, HA, Sugeng P, Toni H. 2007. Vegetative Propagation Techniques Acacia mangium plant type. Research Center for Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Hutan.Vol. 5 No. 2, September 2007.
  • Budi, SW. 2010. Practical Guidelines Silviculture. Silviculture Department of Forestry Bogor: IPB
  • Mansur I. 2010. Silviculture Techniques Used To Reklamsi Land Mines. Bogor: SEAMEO BIOTROP. [Not published].
  • Nurwardani, P. 2008. Engineering Plant breeding and Seed Production. Directorate of National Education. Jakarta.
  • Sukandi T, Sumarhani, Murniati. 2002. Technical Information Pattern Wanantani. Research and Development Center for Forest and Nature Conservation Forestry Research Agency. Bogor.
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