History Tilapia Fish
Tilapia from areas of eastern Africa as under the Nile, Lake Tangayika, Nigeria in the early development of tilapia is still classified in the group Tilapia. In the development of the fish taxonomists classify this type of Sarathrodon Tilapia niloticus or groups that are incubating eggs in female fish called Mouth Breeder. Name tilapia taken from the place of origin, namely the Nile (Satyani, 2001).
Tilapia many dareah live in rivers and lakes. Tilapia is suitable to be maintained in the calm waters, pond or reservoir. Tilapia is a tropical fish that live in warm waters coming from the African continent and has the property of rapidly grow and multiply at a young age, approximately 3.6 months (khoironi, 1996).
Tilapia will be able to survive in water with a salinity of 50 g / l and grow well in water with a salinity 18ppt. while tilapia by species Tilapia and Tilapia nilotica Aurea will breed and grow well in water salinity range of 10-20 g / l (Boya, 1990).
Classification of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Based saanin (1984), tilapia are classified as follows:
Sub Phylum: Vertebrates
Sub order: Percoidea
Species: Oreochromis. Sp
According sucipto and Prihartono (2005) Tilapia are classified as follows:
Sub Phylum: Vertebrates
Sub Grade: Teleostei
Sub Order: Perchoidae
Species: Oreochromis niloticus
Morphology Tilapia Fish
Tilapia has a slender elongated body part and a relatively flat. Big side and rough, shape ctenoid, the lateral line to falter in the middle of the fish body. Color scales brownish gray (dark indigo) and white or red (red tilapia). Position is located at the mouth end of the mouth and the terminal. In the dorsal fin fingers are hard dorsal fin and vertical lines are rounded and reddish. (Suyanto, 1993).
Tilapia has a characteristic in the physical body ratio is 2: 1 between the length and height. 16-17 dorsal fins with sharp spines and 11-15 soft spines and the anal parts there are three spines and 8-11 fingers. Body colored black or gray with some black tape stripes that fade or vaguely visible when the adult fish. (Satyani, 2001).
To differentiate between males and females can be seen through the shape and genitalia that exist in the body of the fish. The males have a genital orifice elongated shape and prominent. Serves as a means spending sperm and urine. Fin color red, especially when ripe gonads. Female fish have sex two holes near the anus, shaped like a crescent moon and a function to release an egg. The second hole was in the back of the fallopian tubes and round and serves as a discharge of urine (Hasni 2008).
Tilapia fish is a freshwater fish species are usually consumed. Natural distribution of fish this is Africa and in Indonesian waters were first discovered by Mr. Mujair in Serang River estuary south coast of Blitar, East Java in 1939. Although still a mystery, how the fish was able to get to a remote estuary south of Blitar.
The scientific name is Oreochromis mossambicus, and known in English as the Mozambique tilapia, or sometimes incorrectly called "Java tilapia". Medium-sized fish, tilapia maximum total length achieved is about 40 cm. These fish began to breed at the age of about 3 months, and after that it can reproduce every 1 ½ months. Each time, dozens of the fertilized egg will 'incubated in the mother's mouth, which takes about a week to hatch. Until a few days later is still holding fish mouth young children, until these children weaned mother.
Previously, tilapia and tilapia known by the scientific name of Tilapia nilotica and Tilapia Mossambica. But since 1980, tilapia and tilapia name has been changed to Oreochromis Oreochromis nilotica and Mossambica. The new classification changes pioneered by several experts including Dr. Trewavas, Wohlfart, and Hulata.
Wohlfart and Hulata (1982) says that fish Cichlidae family consists of two main genera are distinguished by their reproductive behavior. The first genus of small-sized body with a fewer number of eggs and the genus that both have the nature to save the fertilized egg in its mouth. The first genus is a genus of small genus Tilapia and second storing eggs in its mouth is a genus Sarotherodon.
In a publication issued by the British Museum of Natural History, Dr. Trewavas divide fish from the family Cichlidae into 3 genera, among others:
This genus spawn and laying their eggs on a substrate (stone, wood, and so on). Parent males and females take turns keeping the eggs and their children. In addition, the genus Tilapia issuing eggs in small amounts. Examples of species is T. Sepermanii, T. Rendali, and T. Zilli.
Genus Sarotherodon spawning and incubating eggs in the mouth in the male parent or both parents dahkan. Examples of species is S. Malanothreon, and S. Galilaenus.
At this genus, holding the female is incubating the eggs in the mouth and looking after her children. Examples of species is O. nilotica, O. aureus, O. Spilurus, O. Leucostica, O. Vulcani, and O. Nigra.
Based on these studies, tilapia and tilapia in Indonesia has the habit of spawning and incubating eggs in the mouth of the female parent. As a result, naming tilapia and tilapia in Indonesia has been changed into Oreochromis nilotica for tilapia and tilapia Oreochromis Mossambica to fish.
Body shape of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) extends laterally flattened, while the body color indigo is generally white-black and red that are known as "indigo black" and "red tilapia". Black indigo colored black body, the stomach to even brighter. 9-11 has a vertical line of bluish-green fruit. There are 6-12 on the tail fin that ends transverse reddish color, while the back-slash stripe. Red tilapia has a red body color, including fins, or red on the back and white reddish in the abdomen.
After successful interbreeding between the species in the genus Oreochromis and efforts to manipulate the color of indigo it now appears some strains of tilapia and color, such as red tilapia (nirah), tilapia red (mujarah), black tilapia, tilapia wild, indigo gift, indigo nirvana, and etc.
Indigo eyes stood out rather large with the edge of the bluish green. Location of the mouth of the terminal, the position of the pelvic fins pectoral fins thorocis, and the broken line (linea lateralis) were terrputus into two parts, lying lengthwise above the pectoral fins. Number of scales on the lateral line scales 34 types of fruit and ctenoid. Fingers fins consists of 17 fingers hard and 13 fingers soft on the dorsal fin, one of fingers and five fingers software on the pelvic fins, 15 fingers soft on the pectoral fins, 3 fingers hard and 10 fingers on the soft anal fin (anus), and a tail fin there are 8 fingers hard softened.
Forms of tilapia fish (Oreochromis Mossambica) like tilapia. Body color tilapia fish there are gray, brown, and black, depending on the environmental conditions of his life. Pectoral fins and pelvic fins reddish black, while the dorsal fin and tail fin reddish color on the edges. The hallmark of the tilapia fish is the yellowish color on the chin bottom, while the tilapia bright white color. Yellow on the bottom of the increasingly bright / sharp in mature male fish sex. Dorsal fin tilapia are 15-17 hard radius and 10-13 soft radius, the anal fin there are three fingers of hard and soft radii 9-10, the pectoral fins are 13 soft fingers, and no pelvic fins 1 of fingers soften and 5 soft radius. Nila has many varieties or races. Those varieties resulting from cross-breeding between species in the genus Oreochromis, mainly to produce superior tilapia.
Please read also about: catfish culture
Please read also about: catfish culture
And Aquaculture Fish Tilapia Hatchery process
Parent Selection of Fish tilapia
- Seed production is able to produce in large quantities with high quality.
- Highly responsive to a given food.
- Resistant to pests, parasites and diseases.
- Holding good size for spawning is 100 grams.
- There are 3 holes on urogenetial namely: anal, spending holes and hole egg urine.
- End fin pale reddish color is not clear.
- Belly whiter color.
- Color white chin.
- If the stomach does not secrete fluids stripped.
- At urogenetial tool there are 2 holes, namely: the anus and cum sperm hole urine hole.
- End fin reddish color is bright and clear.
- Color darker abdomen / blackish.
Tilapia fish breeding can be done in three ways, namely:
The system of the pond
In this system pond spawning / hatchery combined with the pond / childcare. After preparation of seeding media, scatter the male and female parent with a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 4 with the number density of 2 pairs / 10 square meters. harvesting done every 2 weeks.
Two pools system
In this system the process of spawning and nursery is done in a separate pool, with a large proportion of spawning pond with pond is 1: 2 or 1: 4. The basis of the pond should be lower than other pond bottom so that water flow is quite flowing from the spawning pond to pond. At the second door is mounted pool coarse sieve so that only the children of fish that can pass. The number and density of male and female parent are deployed together with the system of the pond.
In this system pond is divided into four parts, the first pond as a male and female parent meeting or spawning sites. The second pond where the mother which is sealed by a lattice bamboo with holes the size of the female parent body so that only the mother who may qualify for this second pool. The third pool is where the release of larvae and a fourth is a nursery. Media preparation and holding amount is released together with the first system.
Tilapia fish spawning and hatching take place throughout the year in the spawning pond and does not require any special spawning environment. It needs to be done is the preparation of maintenance media such as drying, liming and fertilizing. The water level in the pond was maintained at approximately 50 cm.
To increase the level of Productivity and fertility, then given extra food with the following composition: 25% fish meal, copra meal and fine bran 10% to 65%. This ration composition used in the cultivation of tilapia fish commercially. Can also be given food in the form of pellets, which yield 20-30% protein with a dose of 2-3% of the population weight per day, given as much as 2 times / day ie morning and afternoon. Spawning occurs after the male parent will make a nest hole in the form of depressions in the bottom of the pool with a diameter of about 10-35 cm.
Once spawning is finished nesting, spawning process takes place immediately. After the fertilization process is complete, the eggs of spawning results immediately collected by the female parent in his mouth for incubated until hatching. At this time the female parent is inactive eat so that her body looks thin. The eggs will hatch after 3-5 days on the water temperature around 25-27 degrees C. After about 2 weeks after hatching, the mother of new releases his children, because it has been able to find their own food.
Seed maintenance Tilapia Fish
Nursery or child maintenance tilapia fish is done after the eggs hatch spawning results. This activity is carried out on the pond who are ready to accept juveniles where the pool is drained and cleaned in advance of wild fish. Swimming given chalk and nurtured accordingly. Similarly, the feeding of seeds adapted to the provisions. Number of stocking in the pond depends on the size of fish seed. Fish fry 1-3 cm size, number of stocking about 30-50 fish / square meter, the size of 3-5 cm stocking amount ranging from 5-10 individuals / square meter. While the kids fish size 2-5 5-8 cm stocking tail number / square meter. To seed the size of 5-8 cm, monoseks culture should be done, because at that size fish seed can already distinguish the sex male or female.
Step - Step In Raising Tilapia
Tilapia Aquaculture Site Selection
There are some things we have to consider in determining the location for the cultivation of tilapia fish:
- Good soil for pool maintenance is a type of clay / loam, not pivot. These soils can hold a large mass of water and do not leak so that it can be made the pool walls.
- The slope of the land is good for making the pond ranged from 3-5% to facilitate irrigation pond by gravity.
- Tilapia fish can grow normally, if the location of the maintenance at an altitude between 150-1000 m above sea level. For the maintenance of water quality tilapia fish should be clean, not too muddy and polluted toxic chemicals, and oil / sewage plants.
- Tilapia fish can thrive in ponds, paddy fields, and streams jetted. Swimming with irrigation system that flows very well for the growth and physical development of tilapia fish. Debit calm water for swimming water 8-15 liters / sec / ha, whereas for the enlargement jetted tub debit of 100 liter / min / m3.
- Water acidity (pH) were well is between 7-8.
- Good water temperature ranges between 20-25 degrees C.
In this step is similar to the way other fish farming depend on the land and farming needs. Generally undertaken extensive pool 500 - 1000 m2 Making Causeway pool should be sturdy and waterproof with a width up to 50 cm. The provision of income and expenditure of the water channel located on the opposite side. And in the given filter made of wire that has a small hole size so that the fish are not out of the pool, or the nets are put on line income and expenditure.
Into the water of the pool ranges from 70 cm - 150 cm. To prevent water from overflowing into the pool when it rains we can make a trench around or diagonal with a depth of between 20 -50 cm with with a width ranging from 50-200 cm.
The type of pool that is commonly used in the cultivation of tilapia fish, among others:
Aircraft maintenance pool / pond spawning. The pond serves as a spawning pool, the pool should be ground pool which covers 50-100 square meter and a density of progenitor pool only 2 fish / m2. The conditions are the spawning pool water temperature ranges between 20-22 degrees C; water depth of 40-60 cm; preferably sandy bottom of the pool.
Pool maintenance seed / pond
Wide pool of no more than 50-100 square meters. Pond water depth between 30-50 cm. The density should be 5-50 tail / square meter. Long maintenance in the pond / seedling between 3-4 weeks, when the fish fingerlings 3-5 cm in size.
Swimming enlargement serves as a place to nurture and raise seed after of the pond. Sometimes this is necessary in the maintenance of some pools enlargement, namely:
- Swimming enlargement serves to maintain the first phase after the fish seed of the pond. This pool should amount to between 2-4 pieces with a maximum area of 250-500 square meters / pool. Enlargement of the first phase is not advisable to use cement pond, because the seeds of this size requires a vast space. Once the seeds into small logs seed then entered the second phase of enlargement or directly sold to farmers.
- Swimming enlargement phase II works to maintain large spindles seed. Swimming can be a pond or paddy soil. Floating cages can also be used with the mesh from 1.25 to 1.5 cm. Number of enlargement stocking phase II should be no more than 10 animals / square meter.
- Enlargement of stage III serves to raise the seed. Required between 80-100 cm ground pool with an area of 500-2000 square meters.
Before the fish are released into the pond cultivation should be done in the following stages:
- Drying pond until the subgrade be cracked for 4-7 days.
- Giving calcium oxide at a dose of 25-50 g / m2. Basic fertilization in the form of organic fertilizer with a dose of 250-500 g / m2 and inorganic fertilizers like urea and NH4NO3 15 g / m2, TSP 10 g / m2,
- Fertilizers used spread evenly in the bottom of the pool.
To put the results of which reached the target quantity can be done in accordance with the stocking of extensive aquaculture pond itself with a stocking density of 5-10 individuals / m2 and the size of the seed used is 8-12 cm size or weight of ± 15-20 g / head.
Maintenance Enlargement Fish Tilapia
Maintenance of enlargement can be done in polyculture or monoculture.
- 50% tilapia fish, fish tawes 20%, and 30% mas, or
- tilapia fish 50%, 20% carp and carp 30%.
Maintenance of these systems is the best maintenance compared to polyculture and in this system the separation between male and female parent.
Tilapia fish rearing can also be done in net, in the form of Hapa measuring 1 x 2 m to 2 x 3 m with a depth of 75-100 cm. Hapa size can be adjusted to the depth of the pool. Besides rice was diberokan can be used also for spawning and raising tilapia fish seed. Prior to use rice fields deepened in advance in order to accommodate the water depth of 50-60 cm, made trench width 1-1.5 m with a depth of 60-75 cm.
Productivity levels and fertility If the pool is on the wane, it can be given extra food with the following composition: 25% fish meal, copra meal and fine bran 10% to 65%. The composition of the ration is used in fish tilapia farming commercially. Can also be given food in the form of pellets, which yield 20-30% protein with a dose of 2-3% of the population weight per day, given twice a day ie morning and afternoon.
Besides, it is also the condition of the feed in these waters according to the dose or the existing provisions. That is in addition to the feed of the basic media also need to be given additional food in the form of pellets or crumbs crushed with a heavy dose of 10% of the population per day. Administration 2-3 times / day.
Maintenance pool / Pond
In terms of maintenance of tilapia fish that should not be overlooked is water conditions in order to maintain water quality is quite stable and clean and not contaminated / poisoned by toxic substances.
Maintenance of tilapia fish is very easy. Maintenance can be carried out in the fields or on the lake, which is important enough available acid, so often found in tandem tilapia fish breath of fresh air.
- For the density of maintenance, each 1.5 m could contain more than 20 fish tilapia fish 8 to 10 centimeters long.
- For feeding, we can sprinkle concentrate 521 or 534, or can create their own material plus anchovies milled rice bran and corn sides.
- As a supplementary food kale leaves, chopped spinach, or may also dead chickens or ducks.
Pests and Diseases of Fish Tilapia
Pests Fish Tilapia
Dangerous for seed because of the sting.
Control: pour kerosene into the water 500 cc / 100 square meters.
Ucrit (larvae cybister)
Clamping body of the fish with fangs to tear.
Control: difficult to eradicate; Avoid organic materials accumulate around the pool.
Eat the eggs of fish. Control: often throw eggs float; catch and throw him alive.
Attacking seeds and small fish. Control: do arrest; pool fencing.
Eating fish at night. Control: trap pairs.
Which takes a light-colored seeds such as red, yellow.
Control: given the difficult barrier of bamboo in order to pounce; given tassel or rope barrier.
Disease Tilapia Fish:
In general things are done in order to prevent diseases and pests in tilapia fish farming:
- Drying bottom of the pool on a regular basis after each harvest.
- Maintenance of fish that are completely free of the disease.
- Avoid excessive stocking of fish exceeds the capacity.
- The ideal water intake system is parallel, each pool were given a water intake door.
- feeding enough, both quality and quantity.
- handling during harvest or removal of seeds should be done carefully and correctly.
- Animals such as birds, snails, fish thousand (lebistus reticulatus Peters) as a carrier of the disease should not be allowed into the pool area.
Tilapia Fish Harvest.
Tilapia fish harvesting can be done by: total harvest and harvest most.
Partial or selective harvesting crops
Selective harvesting is done without draining the pond, fish will be harvested chosen a certain size (for harvesting the seed). The size of the seeds to be harvested (age 1-1.5 months) depending on consumer demand, generally classified for size: 1-3 cm; 3-5 cm and 5-8 cm.
Harvesting is done by using waring on which had been sprinkled with bait (bran). Fish that are not selected (usually injured by nets), before being returned to the pool should be separated and given medication by 0.5-1.0 ppm malachite green solution for 1 hour.
Generally, the total harvest is done to catch / harvest fish from enlargement. Generally harvested tilapia fish aged between 5 months and weighing between 30-45 g / fish. Total harvest is done by drying the pond, to a height of 10-20 cm of water stay.
Swath harvesting / plot arrests were made an area of 1 sq m at the front door of expenditure (monnik), making it easier in fishing. Harvesting is done early in the day when things do not heat by using waring or scoopnet smooth. Perform harvesting as soon as possible and be careful to avoid injuries fish.
Post Harvest Aquaculture Tilapia Fish
Tilapia fish post-harvest handling can be done by handling live fish and fresh fish.
The handling of live fish
Sometimes the consumption of fish will be more expensive when sold alive. Things to note that these fish reach the consumer alive, fresh and healthy, among others:
- In the transport of water use a low temperature of about 20 derajatC.
- Transport time should be in the morning or afternoon.
- The number density of fish in the transportation equipment is not too dense.
Handling fresh fish
Fresh fish carp is a product that is rapidly descending quality. Things to consider to maintain freshness, among others:
- Arrests must be done carefully so the fish are not injured.
- Before packed, the fish must be washed so clean and mucus.
- Container carrier should be clean and covered. For the transport of short distance (2 hours drive), can be used baskets covered with banana leaves / plastic. For long-distance transport of used boxes and zinc or fiberglass. The maximum box capacity 50 kg with a maximum height of 50 cm box.
- The fish is placed in a container which was given ice with a temperature of 6-7 degrees C.
Use ice in the form of small pieces (es detached) with a ratio of the amount of ice and fish = 1: 1. Bottom of the box covered with ice as thick as 4-5 cm. Then the fish are arranged on top of this ice layer 5-10 cm thick, then followed by a layer of ice again and so on. Between the walls of the box is a fish with ice, as well as between fish with lid.
While the things that need to be considered in the treatment of seed are as follows:
- Seed should be selected healthy fish that is free of disease, parasites and not disabled. After that, a new fish seed is inserted into a plastic bag (closed system) or cage (open systems).
- The transport medium water used must be clean, healthy, free of pests and diseases and other organic materials. For example it can be used well water that has been aerated overnight.
- Before being transported fish seed should be brought up during the first few days.
- Use a bath containing the enlargement in the form of clean water, and with good aeration. Places enlargement can be made with a size of 1 x 1 m or 2 m x 0.5 m. By that measure, like enlargement can accommodate carp seed number 5000-6000 tails with a size of 3-5 cm. The number of seeds in the enlargement must be adapted to the size of the seed.
Based long / distance delivery, the seed transport system is divided into two parts, namely:
a. Open systems
Performed for transporting the seeds in close quarters or do not require a long time. Conveyance in the form of cages. Each cage can be filled 15 liters of clean water and to transport about 5,000 fry 3-5 cm size.
b. Closed system
Performed for the transport seeds long distances that take more than 4-5 hours, using a plastic bag. The volume of the transport medium consisting of 5 liters of clean water are given buffer Na2 (hpo) 4.1H2O as much as 9 grams. Way packaging fish seeds are transported with plastic bags:
- enter the clean water into a plastic bag and then seeds.
- remove the air by pressing the plastic bag to the surface of the water.
- The stream of oxygen from a tube flowed into plastic bags as much as 2/3 of the overall volume of the cavity (water: oxygen = 1: 1).
- a plastic bag and then tied.
- The plastic bag is inserted into the dos with longitudinal position or put to sleep. Dos measuring 0.50 m long, 0.35 m wide and 0.50 m high can be filled with 2 pieces of plastic bags.
Some things to note after the seeds reached the destination is as follows:
- Prepare a solution of tetracycline 25 ppm in bucket (1 capsule tertasiklin in 10 liters of water).
- Open the plastic bag, add water coming from the local pond bit by bit in order to change the temperature of the water in a plastic bag occurs slowly.
- Move the fish seed into the bucket containing tetracycline solution for 1-2 minutes.
- Put the fish into a bath seed enlargement. In the tub seed enlargement fish fed sufficiently. In addition, treatment with tetracycline 25 ppm for 3 days in a row.
- After 1 week of quarantine, seed stocking fish in pond aquaculture.
Similarly, a brief review of Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results , hopefully what has been delivered can be useful, and do not forget to share with others.